Next Article in Journal
Effects of Heating Rate on Formation of Globular and Acicular Austenite during Reversion from Martensite
Previous Article in Journal
Porosity and Microstructure Iron-Based Graded Materials Sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering and the Conventional Method
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metals 2019, 9(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020265

Mineralogical Characteristics and Isothermal Oxidation Kinetics of Ironsand Pellets

School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30th Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [4277 KB, uploaded 23 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

An in-depth understanding of mineralogical characteristics and the oxidation behaviors of ironsand is of great significance to make the best of ironsand and develop Ti-containing pellets. This paper quantitatively characterized the mineralogical characteristics of the ironsand from East Java in Indonesia through X-ray diffraction (XRD-Rietveld) and scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS). The results indicated that the mineral composition of the ironsand was magnetite (22.7%), titanomagnetite (40.9%), enstatite (17.1%), hematite–ilmenite solid solution (14.5%), and magnesium iron aluminum silicon oxide (5.8%). The microstructure characterization of pellets after oxidation showed that the porosity of the pellets decreased from 20.7% to 11.7% with temperatures ranging from 1073 to 1473 K. Moreover, the activation energies of ironsand pellets were calculated by using model-function method. The calculated data of different mechanism functions indicated that the chemical reaction mechanism for the early stage of the oxidation fit A2 (random nucleation and nuclei growth) well, the chemical reaction mechanism for the post-oxidation at 1073–1273 K fit F1 (chemical reaction) well, and the chemical reaction mechanism for the post-oxidation at 1373 and 1473 K fit D4 (diffusion) well. The reaction mechanism and the limited link was finally discussed based on the kinetic analysis and the mineralogical characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: isothermal oxidation; kinetics; ironsand pellets; mineralogy; Ti-containing pellets isothermal oxidation; kinetics; ironsand pellets; mineralogy; Ti-containing pellets
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Liu, Z. Mineralogical Characteristics and Isothermal Oxidation Kinetics of Ironsand Pellets. Metals 2019, 9, 265.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Metals EISSN 2075-4701 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top