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Open AccessArticle

Prediction of Wrinkling of a Beverage Can Subjected to the Redrawing Process by J2 Deformation Theory

1
Graduate School, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehakro, Daegu 41566, Korea
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehakro, Daegu 41566, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9111168
Received: 22 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
Wrinkling of beverage cans is one of the problems faced by can manufacturers and aluminum suppliers. The bottom of an aluminum can is wrinkled by compression during the forming process. In this study, to predict the occurrence of wrinkles during the redrawing process of AA3104 (t = 0.265 mm), which is the material used to fabricate aluminum cans, the classical plasticity J2 deformation theory (J2D) and flow theory (J2F) were considered. J2F considers only the deformation perpendicular to the yield locus, whereas J2D considers the deformation perpendicular to the yield locus and that tangential to the yield locus. Wrinkles are predicted using finite element (FE) analyses based on J2D and J2F, and the results are compared. J2F could not predict the number and amplitude of wrinkles. By contrast, the wrinkles predicted using J2D exhibited good agreement with sample data obtained for a real can. To find the difference between the results obtained using J2F and J2D, evolutions of stress path in a wrinkled element are compared. It was confirmed that compressive stress is more dominant in the J2D case than in the J2F case. Moreover, the measured effective strain of the element is small, under 0.04. In conclusion, J2D is more suitable for predicting the wrinkling behavior of aluminum cans than J2F. In addition, ANOVA and ANOM analysis are performed to evaluate the influence of the design parameters, namely friction coefficient, thickness, and outer profile angle, and the parameters are optimized to reduce wrinkles by combining the Taguchi method with FE simulation based on the J2D theory. View Full-Text
Keywords: wrinkling behavior; J2 deformation theory; finite element method; redraw process; taguchi method wrinkling behavior; J2 deformation theory; finite element method; redraw process; taguchi method
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Kim, J.J.; Nguyen, P.V.; Kim, Y.S. Prediction of Wrinkling of a Beverage Can Subjected to the Redrawing Process by J2 Deformation Theory. Metals 2019, 9, 1168.

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