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Ion Implantation of Calcium and Zinc in Magnesium for Biodegradable Implant Applications

1
Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
2
Centre for Accelerator Science, Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, NSW 2234, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2018, 8(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8010030
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract

In this study, magnesium was implanted with calcium-ion and zinc-ion at fluences of 1015, 1016, and 1017 ion·cm−2, and its in vitro degradation behaviour was evaluated using electrochemical techniques in simulated body fluid (SBF). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) revealed that the implanted ions formed layers within the passive magnesium-oxide/hydroxide layers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results demonstrated that calcium-ion implantation at a fluence of 1015 ions·cm−2 increased the polarisation resistance by 24%, but higher fluences showed no appreciable improvement. In the case of zinc-ion implantation, increase in the fluence decreased the polarisation resistance. A fluence of 1017 ion·cm−2 decreased the polarisation resistance by 65%, and fluences of 1015 and 1016 showed only marginal effect. Similarly, potentiodynamic polarisation results also suggested that low fluence of calcium-ion decreased the degradation rate by 38% and high fluence of zinc-ion increased the degradation rate by 61%. All the post-polarized ion-implanted samples and the bare metal revealed phosphate and carbonate formation. However, the improved degradative behaviour in calcium-ion implanted samples can be due to a relatively better passivation, whereas the reduction in degradation resistance in zinc-ion implanted samples can be attributed to the micro-galvanic effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium; biomaterials; degradation; ion implantation magnesium; biomaterials; degradation; ion implantation
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Somasundaram, S.; Ionescu, M.; Mathan, B.K. Ion Implantation of Calcium and Zinc in Magnesium for Biodegradable Implant Applications. Metals 2018, 8, 30.

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