Next Article in Journal
A Comparative Characterization of the Microstructures and Tensile Properties of As-Cast and Thixoforged in situ AM60B-10 vol% Mg2Sip Composite and Thixoforged AM60B
Previous Article in Journal
Channel Structures Formed in Copper Ingots upon Melting and Evaporation by a High-Power Electron Beam
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metals 2015, 5(1), 439-456;

A Study of Calcareous Deposits on Cathodically Protected Mild Steel in Artificial Seawater

School of Materials, the University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
James David Scantlebury passed away on 13 July 2012.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hugo F. Lopez
Received: 18 December 2014 / Revised: 15 January 2015 / Accepted: 15 February 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [933 KB, uploaded 13 March 2015]   |  


Calcareous deposits were formed on steel under conditions of cathodic protection in artificial seawater at applied constant current densities ranging from 50 to 400 mA·m2. The calcareous layers were characterized using a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG SEM) in conjunction with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). At cathodic current densities of 50–100 mA·m2 where corrosion was still occurring, a clear correlation existed between the iron containing corrosion product and the overlying magnesium hydroxide layer. This revealed that the mapping of magnesium rich areas on a steel surface can be used in the identification of local corrosion sites. At current densities of 150–200 mA·m2, a layered deposit was shown to occur consisting of an inner magnesium-containing layer and an outer calcium-containing layer. At current densities of 300–400 mA·m2, intense hydrogen bubbling through macroscopic pores in the deposits gave rise to cracking of the deposited film. Under such conditions deposits do not have a well-defined double layer structure. There is also preferential formation of magnesium-rich compounds near the steel surface at the early stages of polarisation and within the developing pores and cracks of calcareous deposits later on. Based on SEM/EDX investigation of calcareous depositions the impedance model was proposed and used to monitor in situ variations in steel corrosion resistance, and to calculate the thickness of formed deposits using the length of oxygen diffusion paths. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcareous deposition; corrosion; FEG SEM/EDX; EIS; artificial seawater calcareous deposition; corrosion; FEG SEM/EDX; EIS; artificial seawater

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Y.; Scantlebury, J.D.; Koroleva, E.V. A Study of Calcareous Deposits on Cathodically Protected Mild Steel in Artificial Seawater. Metals 2015, 5, 439-456.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Metals EISSN 2075-4701 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top