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Article

Model and Mechanism of Anode Effect of an Electrochemical Cell for Nd or (Nd, Pr) Reduction

1
Laboratory of Metallurgical Processes, IPT—Institute for Technological Research of Sao Paulo State, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, Sao Paulo 05508-901, SP, Brazil
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Luciano Gualberto, Sao Paulo 05508-010, SP, Brazil
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Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, IPT—Institute for Technological Research of Sao Paulo State, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, Sao Paulo 05508-901, SP, Brazil
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IME Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestraße 3, 52056 Aachen, Germany
5
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, Sao Paulo 05508-030, SP, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Petros E. Tsakiridis
Metals 2022, 12(3), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12030498
Received: 21 February 2022 / Revised: 11 March 2022 / Accepted: 13 March 2022 / Published: 15 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Understanding Metal Electrolysis Processes)
The anode effect can occur during neodymium and didymium oxide electrowinning, causing a surge in the electrochemical cell voltage, interrupting the process, and increasing the greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, we develop a mathematical model, based on the mass balance of gas bubbles evolving from the anode, to understand the influence of some process parameters on the anode effect. The anode effect occurs due to bubble coverage and limitations on the mass transfer of the oxide species. Variables such as current density, oxide content, viscosity, and electrolyte composition play an important role in the anodic process. Finally, we propose a mechanism for the occurrence of the anode effect during Nd or Di (Nd–Pr) oxide electrolytic reduction based on models used in aluminum electrolysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: anode effect; neodymium and praseodymium electrowinning; modeling anode effect; neodymium and praseodymium electrowinning; modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

da Silva, A.L.N.; dos Santos, C.A.L.; de Araújo, R.d.M.R.; Feldhaus, D.; Friedrich, B.; Landgraf, F.J.G.; Guardani, R. Model and Mechanism of Anode Effect of an Electrochemical Cell for Nd or (Nd, Pr) Reduction. Metals 2022, 12, 498. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12030498

AMA Style

da Silva ALN, dos Santos CAL, de Araújo RdMR, Feldhaus D, Friedrich B, Landgraf FJG, Guardani R. Model and Mechanism of Anode Effect of an Electrochemical Cell for Nd or (Nd, Pr) Reduction. Metals. 2022; 12(3):498. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12030498

Chicago/Turabian Style

da Silva, Andre L.N., Celia A.L. dos Santos, Rogério d.M.R. de Araújo, Dominic Feldhaus, Bernd Friedrich, Fernando J.G. Landgraf, and Roberto Guardani. 2022. "Model and Mechanism of Anode Effect of an Electrochemical Cell for Nd or (Nd, Pr) Reduction" Metals 12, no. 3: 498. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12030498

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