Next Article in Journal
Influence of Modified Bio-Coals on Carbonization and Bio-Coke Reactivity
Previous Article in Journal
Electrodeposition of Indium from an Ionic Liquid Investigated by In Situ Electrochemical XPS
Article

Lead Recovery from a Lead Concentrate throughout Direct Smelting Reduction Process with Mixtures of Na2CO3 and SiC to 1000 °C

1
Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingeniería Campus Zacatecas (UPIIZ), Ciudad Administrativa, Zacatecas 98160, Mexico
2
Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas (ESIQIE), Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos (UPALM), Ciudad de Mexico 07738, Mexico
3
Catedrático CONACyT—Departamento de Procesos de transformación, Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo 25294, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Felix A. Lopez
Metals 2022, 12(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12010058
Received: 7 November 2021 / Revised: 22 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 28 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Extractive Metallurgy)
Lead was recovered through a direct smelting reduction route from a lead concentrate by using mixtures of Na2CO3 and SiC to 1000 °C. The lead concentrate was obtained from the mining State of Zacatecas, México by traditional mineral processing and froth flotation. The experimental trials showed that 86 wt.% of lead with a purity up to 97% can be recovered from the lead concentrate by a single step reduction process when 40 wt.% Na2CO3 and 0.4 g SiC were used in the initial charge. The process was modeled in the thermodynamic software FactSage 7.3 to evaluate the effect of adding different amounts of Na2CO3 on the lead recovery rates while holding constant the SiC amount and temperature. The stability phase diagram obtained showed that an addition of 34 wt.% Na2CO3 was enough to reach the highest lead recovery. It was observed that the interaction of Na2CO3 and SiC at a high temperature promotes the formation of C and Na2O, and SiO2, respectively, where the Na2O partially bonds with silica and sulfur forming Na2S and sodium silicates which may decrease the SO2 emissions and increase the weather degradation of the slag. The PbS was mainly reduced by the produced C and CO formed by the interaction between Na2CO3 and SiC at 1000 °C. The predicted results reasonably match with those obtained experimentally in the lead recovery rates and compounds formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead concentrate; direct reduction; Na2CO3; SiC; slag lead concentrate; direct reduction; Na2CO3; SiC; slag
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gutiérrez Pérez, V.H.; Osorio Hernández, J.D.; Sánchez Alvarado, R.G.; Cruz Ramírez, A.; Olvera Vázquez, S.L.; Rivera Salinas, J.E. Lead Recovery from a Lead Concentrate throughout Direct Smelting Reduction Process with Mixtures of Na2CO3 and SiC to 1000 °C. Metals 2022, 12, 58. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12010058

AMA Style

Gutiérrez Pérez VH, Osorio Hernández JD, Sánchez Alvarado RG, Cruz Ramírez A, Olvera Vázquez SL, Rivera Salinas JE. Lead Recovery from a Lead Concentrate throughout Direct Smelting Reduction Process with Mixtures of Na2CO3 and SiC to 1000 °C. Metals. 2022; 12(1):58. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12010058

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gutiérrez Pérez, Víctor H., Juan D. Osorio Hernández, Ricardo G. Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro Cruz Ramírez, Seydy L. Olvera Vázquez, and Jorge E. Rivera Salinas. 2022. "Lead Recovery from a Lead Concentrate throughout Direct Smelting Reduction Process with Mixtures of Na2CO3 and SiC to 1000 °C" Metals 12, no. 1: 58. https://doi.org/10.3390/met12010058

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop