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Replication Experiments and Microstructural Evolution of the Ancient Co-Fusion Steelmaking Process

Institute of Cultural Heritage and History of Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
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Metals 2020, 10(9), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10091261
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 6 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
The study of co-fusion was one of the essential topics in the history of metallurgy in China. Simulation experiments were an essential concept in the study of the co-fusion steelmaking process. This paper mainly studied the simulation experiments of co-fusion from two aspects: the replication of co-fusion swords by three different methods and the micro-analysis of the co-fusion samples. The experimental results indicated that several co-fusion swords could be made by different processes, but the carbon content and surface hardness were quite different. During repeated forge welding, the microstructure of the samples transformed from laminated to homogenized; finally, a steel with a uniform carbon content was obtained. It was challenging to determine the characteristics of co-fusion from the homogenized samples. The results prompt a rethinking of the microstructural characteristics of ancient co-fusion artifacts. View Full-Text
Keywords: history of metallurgy; co-fusion steelmaking; ancient China; microstructure evolution; simulation experiments; cast iron; wrought iron history of metallurgy; co-fusion steelmaking; ancient China; microstructure evolution; simulation experiments; cast iron; wrought iron
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Qiao, S.; Qian, W. Replication Experiments and Microstructural Evolution of the Ancient Co-Fusion Steelmaking Process. Metals 2020, 10, 1261.

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