Titanium alloys are widely employed for the fabrication of biomedical devices. In this study, we designed and developed a Ti-5Al-2.5Cu alloy, which exhibited antibacterial properties. Microstructure and elemental analyses were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We evaluated the alloy’s antibacterial properties using Escherichia coli
in the plate-count method. The cytotoxicity was examined using the MG-63 cell response by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Microstructural analysis revealed that Ti-5Al-2.5Cu exhibited an equiaxed α’ martensite structure after short-term annealing. The heterogeneous and homogeneous α → α + Ti2
Cu phase transitions occurred at ~840 and 920 °C, respectively. The antibacterial property for Ti-5Al-2.5Cu was varied by volume fraction in the Ti2
Cu and Cu-rich phase, which was obtained using different heat treatments. The high volume fraction of the Ti2
Cu and Cu-rich phase was observed after long-term annealing at 720–840 °C and thus exhibited a higher antibacterial rate. The relationship between phase distribution and the antibacterial property could be satisfied by a positive linear regression equation. Cytotoxicity results showed that heat treatments at different temperatures for Ti-5Al-2.5Cu alloys had no effect on cell viability. The optimal heat treatment for Ti-5Al-2.5Cu alloy was annealing at 760 °C for 24 h. After, the alloy exhibited both promising antibacterial performance and good cytocompatibility.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited