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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Phase Distribution on the Antibacterial Property and Cytotoxicity of Ti-5Al-2.5Cu Alloy after Heat Treatment at Various Temperatures

1
Ph. D. Program, School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
3
Department of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
4
School of Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2020, 10(7), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10070858
Received: 9 June 2020 / Revised: 25 June 2020 / Accepted: 26 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
Titanium alloys are widely employed for the fabrication of biomedical devices. In this study, we designed and developed a Ti-5Al-2.5Cu alloy, which exhibited antibacterial properties. Microstructure and elemental analyses were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We evaluated the alloy’s antibacterial properties using Escherichia coli in the plate-count method. The cytotoxicity was examined using the MG-63 cell response by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Microstructural analysis revealed that Ti-5Al-2.5Cu exhibited an equiaxed α’ martensite structure after short-term annealing. The heterogeneous and homogeneous α → α + Ti2Cu phase transitions occurred at ~840 and 920 °C, respectively. The antibacterial property for Ti-5Al-2.5Cu was varied by volume fraction in the Ti2Cu and Cu-rich phase, which was obtained using different heat treatments. The high volume fraction of the Ti2Cu and Cu-rich phase was observed after long-term annealing at 720–840 °C and thus exhibited a higher antibacterial rate. The relationship between phase distribution and the antibacterial property could be satisfied by a positive linear regression equation. Cytotoxicity results showed that heat treatments at different temperatures for Ti-5Al-2.5Cu alloys had no effect on cell viability. The optimal heat treatment for Ti-5Al-2.5Cu alloy was annealing at 760 °C for 24 h. After, the alloy exhibited both promising antibacterial performance and good cytocompatibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ti-5Al-2.5Cu alloy; Ti2Cu phase; phase distribution; antibacterial property; cytotoxicity Ti-5Al-2.5Cu alloy; Ti2Cu phase; phase distribution; antibacterial property; cytotoxicity
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Chang, Y.-H.; Chao, C.-Y.; Chang, Y.-T.; Du, J.-K. Effect of Phase Distribution on the Antibacterial Property and Cytotoxicity of Ti-5Al-2.5Cu Alloy after Heat Treatment at Various Temperatures. Metals 2020, 10, 858.

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