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Article

Bayesian Estimation of the Variation in Strength and Aerobic Physical Performances in Young Eumenorrheic Female College Students during a Menstrual Cycle

1
Department of Education and Sports Science, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger, Norway
2
School of Sports Science, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dale Wilson Chapman
Sports 2021, 9(9), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9090130
Received: 20 August 2021 / Revised: 9 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
Background: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine changes in strength and aerobic physical performances in young eumenorrheic female college students during the menstruation phase and different testing occasions within a menstrual cycle. Methods: A repeated measure experimental design used to investigate the variation in physical performance from different testing occasions compared to the menstruation phase. Twelve eumenorrhea female college students volunteered to participate in this study. The participants were 19.8 ± 0.8 (±SD) years old, with the body mass of 61.4 ± 11.6 kg, the height of 162.6 ± 5.1 cm, and BMI of 23.2 ± 3.8. All participants reported regular monthly menstrual cycles of 26–33 days, none of whom reported taking oral contraceptives in their entire life. None of the participants was an athlete, and their level of activity was limited to physical education classes and recreational activities. The menstrual cycles during the two cycles before testing had to be between 26 and 35 days to participate in this study. Second, there had to be no current or ongoing neuromuscular diseases or musculoskeletal injuries. Third, no one should be taking any dietary or performance-enhancing supplements that could have affected testing results during this study. The participants tested on one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, 1RM leg press, push-up to failure, leg press with 60% of 1RM to failure, and running 1600 m time trial. The participants were tested on four occasions based on the classical model of the menstrual cycle (i.e., 28 days; early follicular phase (menstruation phase) on day 2 (T1), late follicular phase on day 8 (T2), ovulation phase on day 14 (T3), and mid-luteal phase on day 21 (T4)). Data were analyzed using the Bayesian hierarchical model (Bayesian Estimation) with Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation using the decision-theoretic properties of the high-density interval (HDI) + ROPE decision rule. Results: The Bayesian estimated difference from the four testing occasions neither showed that the most credible parameter values (95% HDI) were sufficiently away from the null value nor showed that the most credible parameter values are close to the null value (Rope odds ratio among all tests were spread in 12.7% < 0 < 87.3% with an effect size ranging between d = −0.01 and 0.44). Hence, no decision can be made as to whether strength and aerobic physical performances change during the menstruation phase compared to the other testing occasions within a menstrual cycle. Conclusions: It was noticed that different studies concluded different results, which make the research in menstrual cycle difficult. However, the results from this study and published studies suggest that future research should investigate and profile motivation and autonomic nervous system activity during the menstruation phase and examine the interaction effect of the three on performance compared to other testing occasions within a menstrual cycle. View Full-Text
Keywords: 1RM; aerobic; strength training; Bayesian Estimation; HDI + ROPE 1RM; aerobic; strength training; Bayesian Estimation; HDI + ROPE
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shalfawi, S.A.I.; El Kailani, G.M.K. Bayesian Estimation of the Variation in Strength and Aerobic Physical Performances in Young Eumenorrheic Female College Students during a Menstrual Cycle. Sports 2021, 9, 130. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9090130

AMA Style

Shalfawi SAI, El Kailani GMK. Bayesian Estimation of the Variation in Strength and Aerobic Physical Performances in Young Eumenorrheic Female College Students during a Menstrual Cycle. Sports. 2021; 9(9):130. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9090130

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shalfawi, Shaher A. I., and Ghazi M. K. El Kailani. 2021. "Bayesian Estimation of the Variation in Strength and Aerobic Physical Performances in Young Eumenorrheic Female College Students during a Menstrual Cycle" Sports 9, no. 9: 130. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9090130

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