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Sport Courage, Worry and Fear in Relation to Success of Alpine Ski Learning

1
Faculty of Kinesiology Horvacanski zavoj, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
2
Sport Science and Technology High School, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir 35220, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2018, 6(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030096
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract

(1) Background: Individuals’ psychological traits can influence not just success in sport but also the ability to learn new motor skills. We investigated whether sport courage, worry and fear differ between alpine ski-naive and basic level skiers and how they affect ski learning. (2): A total of 337 students (249 ski-naive and 88 basic level) participated in research consisting of a four-part questionnaire and structured skiing program. (3) Results: For beginners, lower fear (r = −0.30, p < 0.01) and higher Self-efficiency (r = 0.28, p < 0.05) and mastery (r = 0.20, p < 0.01) were associated with better performance; reducing fear and increasing self-efficiency and worry increased performance. Experienced skiers were better in determination, mastery, and self-efficiency (all p < 0.05). In case of lower score in worry (r = −0.28, p < 0.01) and higher in self-efficiency (r = 0.22, p < 0.05) performance was better. Males scored higher in sport courage scale-31 (all p < 0.05). In particular, self-efficiency was associated with better (r = 0.39, p < 0.01), and higher fear with poorer performance (r = −0.33, p < 0.01). Moreover, self-efficiency was a predictor of ski success (p < 0.001). On the other hand, females like ski beginners scored higher in fear (p < 0.001). In females, determination, mastery and self-efficiency had a positive correlation with skiing (r = 0.21, p < 0.05, r = 0.28, p < 0.01, and r = 0.33, p < 0.01, respectively), while association between Fear and skiing (r = −0.46, p < 0.01) was negative, and fear (p < 0.001) was inversely related to success. (4): Conclusions: Psychological factors and gender differences need to be considered during learning phases of alpine skiing. There is a positive association between self-efficiency and performance of male ski beginners, and negative association between fear and achieved results in basic alpine ski school in case of female ski beginners. View Full-Text
Keywords: sport courage; self-efficiency; worry; fear; skiing performance sport courage; self-efficiency; worry; fear; skiing performance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cigrovski, V.; Radman, I.; Konter, E.; Očić, M.; Ružić, L. Sport Courage, Worry and Fear in Relation to Success of Alpine Ski Learning. Sports 2018, 6, 96.

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