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Sport Courage, Worry and Fear in Relation to Success of Alpine Ski Learning

Faculty of Kinesiology Horvacanski zavoj, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
Sport Science and Technology High School, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir 35220, Turkey
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2018, 6(3), 96;
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
(1) Background: Individuals’ psychological traits can influence not just success in sport but also the ability to learn new motor skills. We investigated whether sport courage, worry and fear differ between alpine ski-naive and basic level skiers and how they affect ski learning. (2): A total of 337 students (249 ski-naive and 88 basic level) participated in research consisting of a four-part questionnaire and structured skiing program. (3) Results: For beginners, lower fear (r = −0.30, p < 0.01) and higher Self-efficiency (r = 0.28, p < 0.05) and mastery (r = 0.20, p < 0.01) were associated with better performance; reducing fear and increasing self-efficiency and worry increased performance. Experienced skiers were better in determination, mastery, and self-efficiency (all p < 0.05). In case of lower score in worry (r = −0.28, p < 0.01) and higher in self-efficiency (r = 0.22, p < 0.05) performance was better. Males scored higher in sport courage scale-31 (all p < 0.05). In particular, self-efficiency was associated with better (r = 0.39, p < 0.01), and higher fear with poorer performance (r = −0.33, p < 0.01). Moreover, self-efficiency was a predictor of ski success (p < 0.001). On the other hand, females like ski beginners scored higher in fear (p < 0.001). In females, determination, mastery and self-efficiency had a positive correlation with skiing (r = 0.21, p < 0.05, r = 0.28, p < 0.01, and r = 0.33, p < 0.01, respectively), while association between Fear and skiing (r = −0.46, p < 0.01) was negative, and fear (p < 0.001) was inversely related to success. (4): Conclusions: Psychological factors and gender differences need to be considered during learning phases of alpine skiing. There is a positive association between self-efficiency and performance of male ski beginners, and negative association between fear and achieved results in basic alpine ski school in case of female ski beginners. View Full-Text
Keywords: sport courage; self-efficiency; worry; fear; skiing performance sport courage; self-efficiency; worry; fear; skiing performance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cigrovski, V.; Radman, I.; Konter, E.; Očić, M.; Ružić, L. Sport Courage, Worry and Fear in Relation to Success of Alpine Ski Learning. Sports 2018, 6, 96.

AMA Style

Cigrovski V, Radman I, Konter E, Očić M, Ružić L. Sport Courage, Worry and Fear in Relation to Success of Alpine Ski Learning. Sports. 2018; 6(3):96.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cigrovski, Vjekoslav, Ivan Radman, Erkut Konter, Mateja Očić, and Lana Ružić. 2018. "Sport Courage, Worry and Fear in Relation to Success of Alpine Ski Learning" Sports 6, no. 3: 96.

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