Next Article in Journal
The Effect of a 6-Month Coach Educational Program on Strengthening Coach-Athlete Interpersonal Relationships in Individual Youth Sport
Previous Article in Journal
Early Adaptations to a Two-Week Uphill Run Sprint Interval Training and Cycle Sprint Interval Training
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sports 2018, 6(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6030073

Anticipating the Direction of Soccer Penalty Shots Depends on the Speed and Technique of the Kick

1
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia
2
Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia
3
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [3356 KB, uploaded 29 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

To succeed at a sport, athletes must manage the biomechanical trade-offs that constrain their performance. Here, we investigate a previously unknown trade-off in soccer: how the speed of a kick makes the outcome more predictable to an opponent. For this analysis, we focused on penalty kicks to build on previous models of factors that influence scoring. More than 700 participants completed an online survey, watching videos of penalty shots from the perspective of a goalkeeper. Participants (ranging in soccer playing experience from never played to professional) watched 60 penalty kicks, each of which was occluded at a particular moment (−0.4 s to 0.0 s) before the kicker contacted the ball. For each kick, participants had to predict shot direction toward the goal (left or right). As expected, predictions became more accurate as time of occlusion approached ball contact. However, the effect of occlusion was more pronounced when players kicked with the side of the foot than when they kicked with the top of the foot (instep). For side-foot kicks, the direction of shots was predicted more accurately for faster kicks, especially when a large portion of the kicker’s approach was presented. Given the trade-off between kicking speed and directional predictability, a penalty kicker might benefit from kicking below their maximal speed. View Full-Text
Keywords: soccer; anticipation; speed; trade-off; goalkeeper; penalty; shooting soccer; anticipation; speed; trade-off; goalkeeper; penalty; shooting
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hunter, A.H.; Murphy, S.C.; Angilletta, M.J., Jr.; Wilson, R.S. Anticipating the Direction of Soccer Penalty Shots Depends on the Speed and Technique of the Kick. Sports 2018, 6, 73.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sports EISSN 2075-4663 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top