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Characterizing Permethrin and Etofenprox Resistance in Two Common Laboratory Strains of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

Neurotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Entomology and Nematology, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Molecular Physiology and Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.
Insects 2018, 9(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9040146
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 14 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrative Mosquito Biology: From Molecules to Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most prolific malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, where widespread insecticide resistance has been reported. An. gambiae laboratory strains are commonly used to study the basic biology of this important mosquito vector, and also in new insecticide discovery programs, where insecticide-susceptible and -resistant strains are often used to screen new molecules for potency and cross-resistance, respectively. This study investigated the toxicity of permethrin, a Type-I pyrethroid insecticide, and etofenprox, a non-ester containing pyrethroid insecticide, against An. gambiae at three life stages. This characterization was performed with susceptible (G3; MRA-112) and resistant (Akdr; MRA-1280) An. gambiae strains; the Akdr strain is known to contain the L1014F mutation in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. Surprisingly, etofenprox displays a lower level of resistance than permethrin against all stages of mosquitoes, except in a headless larval paralysis assay designed to minimize penetration factors. In first-instar An. gambiae larvae, permethrin had significant resistance, determined by the resistance ratio (RR50 = 5), but etofenprox was not significantly different (RR50 = 3.4) from the wild-type strain. Fourth-instar larvae displayed the highest level of resistance for permethrin (RR50 = 108) and etofenprox (RR50 = 35). Permethrin (PC50 = 2 ppb) and etofenprox (PC50 = 9 ppb) resulted in headless larval paralysis (5-h), but resistance, albeit lower, was still present for permethrin (RR50 = 5) and etofenprox (RR50 = 6.9). In adult female mosquitoes, permethrin displayed higher resistance (RR50 = 14) compared to etofenprox (RR50 = 4.3). The level of etofenprox resistance was different from that previously reported for a similar Akron An. gambiae laboratory strain (MRA-913). The chemical synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and diethyl maleate (DEM) were able to synergize permethrin, but not etofenprox in the resistant strain (Akdr). In conclusion, multiple mechanisms are likely involved in pyrethroid resistance, but resistance profiles are dependent upon selection. Etofenprox is an effective insecticide against An. gambiae in the lab but will likely suffer from resistance in the field. View Full-Text
Keywords: knockdown resistance; kdr; pyrethroid; insecticide; pseudo-pyrethroid knockdown resistance; kdr; pyrethroid; insecticide; pseudo-pyrethroid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gross, A.D.; Bloomquist, J.R. Characterizing Permethrin and Etofenprox Resistance in Two Common Laboratory Strains of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). Insects 2018, 9, 146.

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