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Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

Insect Behavior Group, Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Academic Editor: Michael J. Stout
Insects 2015, 6(1), 38-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6010038
Received: 2 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 December 2014 / Published: 30 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management)
True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: aggressive behavior; communication channels; contest; fighting experience; lateralization; learning; mass-rearing optimization; olfactory cues; true fruit flies aggressive behavior; communication channels; contest; fighting experience; lateralization; learning; mass-rearing optimization; olfactory cues; true fruit flies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Benelli, G. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management. Insects 2015, 6, 38-53.

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