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Article

Insecticidal Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles against Spodoptera frugiperda under Laboratory Conditions

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Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
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Society for Research and Initiatives for Sustainable Technologies and Institutions, Grambharti, Amarapur Rd, Gujarat 382735, India
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Agricultural Technology Research Institute, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Lampang 52000, Thailand
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Department of Animal and Aquatic Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
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Innovative Agriculture Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zhenying Wang
Insects 2021, 12(11), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111017
Received: 28 September 2021 / Revised: 4 November 2021 / Accepted: 8 November 2021 / Published: 11 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Fall armyworm has devastated several crops around the world, especially maize that is widely grown and utilized globally. Also, it has been known to cause a lot of damage in rice fields. However, controlling this pest has been a challenge to farmers due to its ability to reproduce faster and its development of resistance to synthetic chemicals, among other factors. Moreover, synthetic chemicals are a threat to the environment and humanity. For these reasons, we are constantly looking for safer yet effective means of controlling this pest, and nanotechnology comes in handy. Zinc Oxide nanoparticles have proved to be efficacious to several insect pests, of which some are in the same genus as Spodoptera frugiperda. This study aimed to find out the insecticidal effects of ZnO nanoparticles on S. frugiperda under laboratory conditions. We observed body deformations, reduced fecundity, reduced oviposition, and mortality when insects were fed on food treated with several concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles, yet the ones fed on control were normal in all the aspects. Therefore, we recommend ZnO nanoparticles for further studies with the aim of using them as an alternative control agent against fall armyworm under field conditions.
Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a major pest of corn, rice, and sorghum among other crops usually controlled using synthetic or biological insecticides. Currently, the new invention of nanotechnology is taking root in the agricultural industry as an alternative source of pest management that is target-specific, safe, and efficient. This study sought to determine the efficacy of commercial Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) towards S. frugiperda under laboratory conditions. ZnO NPs were diluted into different concentrations (100–500 ppm), where the baby corn used to feed the S. frugiperda larvae was dipped. The development of the insect feeding on food dipped in ZnO solution was significantly (p < 0.05) affected, and the number of days that the insect took to complete its life cycle had a significant difference compared to the control. There was a significant difference in the adults’ emergence in all the concentrations of ZnO NPs compared to the control, with over 90% of the eggs successfully going through the life cycle until adult emergence. Additionally, several body malformations were observed throughout the lifecycle of the insect. Also, the fecundity of the females was greatly affected. The findings of this study suggest the possibility of exploitation of ZnO nanoparticles not only to manage S. frugiperda but to significantly reduce their population in the ecosystem through body deformations, reduced fecundity, reduced oviposition, and hatchability of eggs. It will be a valuable tool in integrated pest management regimens. View Full-Text
Keywords: malformations; nanotechnology; Spodoptera frugiperda; zinc oxide nanoparticles malformations; nanotechnology; Spodoptera frugiperda; zinc oxide nanoparticles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pittarate, S.; Rajula, J.; Rahman, A.; Vivekanandhan, P.; Thungrabeab, M.; Mekchay, S.; Krutmuang, P. Insecticidal Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles against Spodoptera frugiperda under Laboratory Conditions. Insects 2021, 12, 1017. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111017

AMA Style

Pittarate S, Rajula J, Rahman A, Vivekanandhan P, Thungrabeab M, Mekchay S, Krutmuang P. Insecticidal Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles against Spodoptera frugiperda under Laboratory Conditions. Insects. 2021; 12(11):1017. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pittarate, Sarayut, Julius Rajula, Afroja Rahman, Perumal Vivekanandhan, Malee Thungrabeab, Supamit Mekchay, and Patcharin Krutmuang. 2021. "Insecticidal Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles against Spodoptera frugiperda under Laboratory Conditions" Insects 12, no. 11: 1017. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12111017

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