- Cultural control practices, like the intercropping, which is the simultaneous cultivation of plant species in same orchard for a considerable proportion of their growing periods  to increase overall crop productivity and profitability, improve pest and disease management, and gain better efficiency in the use of nutrient, water, and light resources .
- Induced plant resistance: A defense system within plants which allows them to resist attacks from pests such as fungal or bacterial pathogens or insects. The defense system reacts to the external attack with physiological changes, triggered by the generation of proteins and chemicals that lead to activation of the plant’s immune system .
- Soil steaming as disinfection of soil-borne insect pests: This technique is regaining popularity to control insect pests in agriculture in recent years. It is an effective sustainable alternative to chemicals and fumigants to disinfect soil in open field, in which hot steam heats up the substrate to temperatures that kill or inactivate soil insects or development phases of some insects .
- Use of plant extracts as biopesticides: The well-known biocide effect of such extracts converts them in an alternative good source to chemical pesticides due to their safe, eco-friendly and more compatible properties .
- Semiochemicals for controlling insect pests: These compounds are informative molecules mainly used in plant-insect or insect-insect interactions as alternative or complementary components to insecticide approaches in different IPM strategies. They can be used in various ways such as monitoring, mass trapping, attract-and-kill, push–pull and disruption strategies .
- Biological control: Where possible, biological and ecological means should be used, promoting naturally occurring biological agents and other inherent strengths as components of total agricultural ecosystems .
Conflicts of Interest
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