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Review

Beyond the Decline of Wild Bees: Optimizing Conservation Measures and Bringing Together the Actors

Laboratory of Zoology, Research Institute for Biosciences, University of Mons (UMONS), Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium
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Insects 2020, 11(9), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090649
Received: 3 September 2020 / Revised: 11 September 2020 / Accepted: 18 September 2020 / Published: 22 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollinator Conservation)
Wild bees represent the main group of pollinators in Europe, being responsible for the reproduction of numerous flowering plants. However, like a non-negligible part of biodiversity, this group has been facing a global decline mostly induced by numerous human factors over the last decades. Overall, even if all the questions are not solved concerning the causes of their decline, we are beyond the precautionary principle because the decline factors are roughly known, identified and at least partially quantified. Experts are now calling for effective actions to promote wild bee diversity and the enhancement of environmental quality. In this review, we present a general and up-to-date assessment of the conservation methods, as well as their efficiency and the current projects that try to fill the gaps and optimize the conservation measures. This publication aims to be a needed catalyst to implement concrete and qualitative conservation actions for wild bees.
Wild bees are facing a global decline mostly induced by numerous human factors for the last decades. In parallel, public interest for their conservation increased considerably, namely through numerous scientific studies relayed in the media. In spite of this broad interest, a lack of knowledge and understanding of the subject is blatant and reveals a gap between awareness and understanding. While their decline is extensively studied, information on conservation measures is often scattered in the literature. We are now beyond the precautionary principle and experts are calling for effective actions to promote wild bee diversity and the enhancement of environment quality. In this review, we draw a general and up-to-date assessment of the conservation methods, as well as their efficiency and the current projects that try to fill the gaps and optimize the conservation measures. Targeting bees, we focused our attention on (i) the protection and restoration of wild bee habitats, (ii) the conservation measures in anthropogenic habitats, (iii) the implementation of human made tools, (iv) how to deal with invasive alien species, and finally (v) how to communicate efficiently and accurately. This review can be considered as a needed catalyst to implement concrete and qualitative conversation actions for bees. View Full-Text
Keywords: wild bees; insect pollinator; decline; conservation actions; conservation tools wild bees; insect pollinator; decline; conservation actions; conservation tools
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MDPI and ACS Style

Drossart, M.; Gérard, M. Beyond the Decline of Wild Bees: Optimizing Conservation Measures and Bringing Together the Actors. Insects 2020, 11, 649. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090649

AMA Style

Drossart M, Gérard M. Beyond the Decline of Wild Bees: Optimizing Conservation Measures and Bringing Together the Actors. Insects. 2020; 11(9):649. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090649

Chicago/Turabian Style

Drossart, Maxime, and Maxence Gérard. 2020. "Beyond the Decline of Wild Bees: Optimizing Conservation Measures and Bringing Together the Actors" Insects 11, no. 9: 649. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11090649

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