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Article

Ecological Drivers and Sex-Based Variation in Body Size and Shape in the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae)

1
Department of Ecology & Evolution, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 2601, Australia
2
Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO, Acton, ACT 2601, Australia
3
Digital Collections & Informatics, National Research Collections Australia, CSIRO, Acton, ACT 2601, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(6), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060390
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 25 May 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 23 June 2020
The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni; Q-fly) is an Australian endemic horticultural pest species, which has caused enormous economic losses. It has the potential to expand its range to currently Q-fly-free areas and poses a serious threat to the Australian horticultural industry. A large number of studies have investigated the correlation between environmental factors and Q-fly development, reproduction, and expansion. However, it is still not clear how Q-fly morphological traits vary with the environment. Our study focused on three morphological traits (body size, wing shape, and fluctuating asymmetry) in Q-fly samples collected from 1955 to 1965. We assessed how these traits vary by sex, and in response to latitude, environmental variables, and geographic distance. First, we found sexual dimorphism in body size and wing shape, but not in fluctuating asymmetry. Females had a larger body size but shorter and wider wings than males, which may be due to reproductive and/or locomotion differences between females and males. Secondly, the body size of Q-flies varied with latitude, which conforms to Bergmann’s rule. Finally, we found Q-fly wing shape was more closely related to temperature rather than aridity, and low temperature and high aridity may lead to high asymmetry in Q-fly populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluctuating asymmetry; ecological selection; sexual dimorphism; Bergmann’s rule; Allen’s rule fluctuating asymmetry; ecological selection; sexual dimorphism; Bergmann’s rule; Allen’s rule
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, Y.; Rodriguez, J.; Fisher, N.; Catullo, R.A. Ecological Drivers and Sex-Based Variation in Body Size and Shape in the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). Insects 2020, 11, 390. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060390

AMA Style

Zhou Y, Rodriguez J, Fisher N, Catullo RA. Ecological Drivers and Sex-Based Variation in Body Size and Shape in the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). Insects. 2020; 11(6):390. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060390

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Yufei, Juanita Rodriguez, Nicole Fisher, and Renee A. Catullo 2020. "Ecological Drivers and Sex-Based Variation in Body Size and Shape in the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae)" Insects 11, no. 6: 390. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060390

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