Protura are widespread, but their presence in the Arctic was first noted only ca. 70 years ago and is still little acknowledged. This work compiles taxonomic information on proturans in the Arctic regions and adds unpublished data from Northern Siberia. Currently, this fauna is represented by 23 species in two orders and 14 genera. The large cosmopolitan genus Eosentomon
is represented by only four species, whereas Acerentomidae is much more diverse, with 19 species in 13 genera (eight Nipponentominae, five Acerentominae). Most of the Arctic species possess a larger number of setae than species living in temperate regions. Based on several unique characters, a new genus, Mastodonentomon
, is erected for Nipponentomon macleani
, and the species is re-described with the original description supplemented with new characters, including head chaetotaxy, seta length, and porotaxy. Proturan occurrence in the Arctic is limited to Beringia, but the majority of species have restricted distributions and none have been found in both the American Arctic and Siberia. This implies relict origins and high levels of proturan endemism in the Arctic. This emerging view on biogeographical history is, however, hampered by the limited extent of available data, which highlights the need for considerably greater survey efforts. A key to Arctic proturans is provided to facilitate further studies.
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