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Male-Produced (−)-δ-Heptalactone, Pheromone of Fruit Fly Rhagoletis batava (Diptera: Tephritidae), a Sea Buckthorn Berries Pest

1
Laboratory of Chemical Ecology, Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lithuania
2
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig Hagering 30, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020138
Received: 25 January 2020 / Revised: 17 February 2020 / Accepted: 18 February 2020 / Published: 23 February 2020
The plantation area of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is expanding in many European countries due to increasing demand for berries, thus creating suitable conditions for the rapid expansion of the fruit fly Rhagoletis batava, a pest of economic importance. To decrease insecticide use, effective means for pest population monitoring are required, including the use of pheromones. Male fruit flies emit (-)-δ-heptalactone as revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of samples obtained using headspace methods. The two enantiomers of δ-heptalactone were synthesized using enantioselective synthesis. A gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of both stereoisomers revealed that only (-)-δ-heptalactone elicited electrophysiological responses, whereas no signal was registered to (+)-δ-heptalactone in fruit flies of either sex. In the field assay, traps baited with (-)-δ-heptalactone caught significantly more fruit flies compared with the unbaited traps. Our results are the first to demonstrate the efficacy of (-)-δ-heptalactone as a bait for trapping R. batava. As a behaviorally attractive compound to R. batava fruit flies of both sexes, (-)-δ-heptalactone is attributed to aggregation pheromones. This is the first report of an aggregation pheromone within the genus Rhagoletis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rhagoletis batava; pheromone identification; synthesis; bioassay; field trapping; SPME; GC-EAD; GC-MS Rhagoletis batava; pheromone identification; synthesis; bioassay; field trapping; SPME; GC-EAD; GC-MS
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Būda, V.; Blažytė-Čereškienė, L.; Radžiutė, S.; Apšegaitė, V.; Stamm, P.; Schulz, S.; Aleknavičius, D.; Mozūraitis, R. Male-Produced (−)-δ-Heptalactone, Pheromone of Fruit Fly Rhagoletis batava (Diptera: Tephritidae), a Sea Buckthorn Berries Pest. Insects 2020, 11, 138.

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