Next Article in Journal
Agar and Carrageenan as Cost-Effective Gelling Agents in Yeast-Reduced Artificial Diets for Mass-Rearing Fruit Flies and Their Parasitoids
Previous Article in Journal
New Tools for Conservation Biological Control: Testing Ant-Attracting Artificial Nectaries to Employ Ants as Plant Defenders
Open AccessArticle

Spittlebugs of Mediterranean Olive Groves: Host-Plant Exploitation throughout the Year

1
CNR—Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Strada delle Cacce, 73, 10135 Torino, Italy
2
CNR—Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, SS Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari, Italy
3
CRSFA—Centro di Ricerca, Sperimentazione e Formazione in Agricoltura Basile Caramia, Via Cisternino, 281, 70010 Locorotondo (Bari), Italy
4
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e Alimentari, Università degli Studi di Torino, Largo Paolo Braccini, 2, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
5
Agrifood Lab, Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Traslazionale, Università degli Studi di Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020130
Received: 1 January 2020 / Revised: 5 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
Spittlebugs are the vectors of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells in Europe, the causal agent of olive dieback epidemic in Apulia, Italy. Selection and distribution of different spittlebug species on host-plants were investigated during field surveys in 2016–2018 in four olive orchards of Apulia and Liguria Regions of Italy. The nymphal population in the herbaceous cover was estimated using quadrat samplings. Adults were collected by sweeping net on three different vegetational components: herbaceous cover, olive canopy, and wild woody plants. Three species of spittlebugs were collected: Philaenus spumarius L., Neophilaenus campestris (Fallén), and Aphrophora alni (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae). Philaenus spumarius was the predominant species both in Apulia and Liguria olive groves. Nymphal stages are highly polyphagous, selecting preferentially Asteraceae Fabaceae plant families, in particular some genera, e.g., Picris, Crepis, Sonchus, Bellis, Cichorium, and Medicago. Host-plant preference of nymphs varies according to the Region and through time and nymphal instar. In the monitored sites, adults peak on olive trees earlier in Apulia (i.e., during inflorescence emergence) than in Liguria (i.e., during flowering and beginning of fruit development). Principal alternative woody hosts are Quercus spp. and Pistacia spp. Knowledge concerning plant selection and ecological traits of spittlebugs in different Mediterranean olive production areas is needed to design effective and precise control strategies against X. fastidiosa vectors in olive groves, such as ground cover modifications to reduce populations of spittlebug vectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: Philaenus spumarius; host-plant selection; plant preference; spittlebugs; xylem-sap feeders; olive; insect vectors; Xylella fastidiosa; OQDS; insect aggregation Philaenus spumarius; host-plant selection; plant preference; spittlebugs; xylem-sap feeders; olive; insect vectors; Xylella fastidiosa; OQDS; insect aggregation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bodino, N.; Cavalieri, V.; Dongiovanni, C.; Saladini, M.A.; Simonetto, A.; Volani, S.; Plazio, E.; Altamura, G.; Tauro, D.; Gilioli, G.; Bosco, D. Spittlebugs of Mediterranean Olive Groves: Host-Plant Exploitation throughout the Year. Insects 2020, 11, 130.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop