Next Article in Journal
Evidence for Divergent Selection on Immune Genes between the African Malaria Vectors, Anopheles coluzzii and A. gambiae
Previous Article in Journal
Functional Analysis of Odorant-Binding Proteins 12 and 17 from Wheat Blossom Midge Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
 
 
Article

Testing Seven Hypotheses to Determine What Explains the Current Planthopper (Fulgoridae) Geographical and Species Richness Patterns in China

1
Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
2
Provincial Special Key Laboratory for Development and Utilization of Insect Resources of Guizhou, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
3
Guizhou Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of Mountainous Region, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
4
College of Animal Science, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(12), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11120892
Received: 18 November 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 15 December 2020 / Published: 17 December 2020
Although there are many described species and ample geographical distribution data available on planthoppers (Fulgoridae) in China, the research on the underlying mechanisms of macro-scale richness patterns is still scant. To contribute to unraveling these mechanisms, we tested seven hypotheses related to contemporary environments and historical climate stability by relating the species richness to 15 environmental variables. The historical climate stability, ambient energy, and productivity hypotheses are superior to other hypotheses in explaining the current richness patterns of planthoppers. Based on these main hypotheses, we narrowed the mechanisms underlying contemporary planthopper distribution in China. Furthermore, other factors not included in this study (i.e., orogenic processes and geological isolation) may significantly contribute to richness patterns identified here.
Although many hypotheses have been proposed to understand the mechanisms underlying large-scale richness patterns, the environmental determinants are still poorly understood, particularly in insects. Here, we tested the relative contributions of seven hypotheses previously proposed to explain planthopper richness patterns in China. The richness patterns were visualized at a 1° × 1° grid size, using 14,722 distribution records for 1335 planthoppers. We used ordinary least squares and spatial error simultaneous autoregressive models to examine the relationships between richness and single environmental variables and employed model averaging to assess the environmental variable relative roles. Species richness was unevenly distributed, with high species numbers occurring in the central and southern mountainous areas. The mean annual temperature change since the Last Glacial Maximum was the most important factor for richness patterns, followed by mean annual temperature and net primary productivity. Therefore, historical climate stability, ambient energy, and productivity hypotheses were supported strongly, but orogenic processes and geological isolation may also play a vital role. View Full-Text
Keywords: ambient energy; biogeography; dispersal ability; historical climate stability; Last Glacial Maximum; planthoppers; productivity; species richness ambient energy; biogeography; dispersal ability; historical climate stability; Last Glacial Maximum; planthoppers; productivity; species richness
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Z.-X.; Yang, L.; Long, J.-K.; Chang, Z.-M.; Zhou, Z.-X.; Zhi, Y.; Yang, L.-J.; Li, H.-X.; Sui, Y.-J.; Gong, N.; Wang, X.-Y.; Chen, X.-S. Testing Seven Hypotheses to Determine What Explains the Current Planthopper (Fulgoridae) Geographical and Species Richness Patterns in China. Insects 2020, 11, 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11120892

AMA Style

Zhao Z-X, Yang L, Long J-K, Chang Z-M, Zhou Z-X, Zhi Y, Yang L-J, Li H-X, Sui Y-J, Gong N, Wang X-Y, Chen X-S. Testing Seven Hypotheses to Determine What Explains the Current Planthopper (Fulgoridae) Geographical and Species Richness Patterns in China. Insects. 2020; 11(12):892. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11120892

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Zheng-Xue, Lin Yang, Jian-Kun Long, Zhi-Min Chang, Zheng-Xiang Zhou, Yan Zhi, Liang-Jing Yang, Hong-Xing Li, Yong-Jin Sui, Nian Gong, Xiao-Ya Wang, and Xiang-Sheng Chen. 2020. "Testing Seven Hypotheses to Determine What Explains the Current Planthopper (Fulgoridae) Geographical and Species Richness Patterns in China" Insects 11, no. 12: 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11120892

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop