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Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in the Americas and Hawaii: A Review of the Use of Parasitoids and Predators

1
Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia, Zoologia e Genética, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas 96010900, RS, Brazil
2
LIEMEN, División Control Biológico de Plagas, PROIMI Biotecnología, CCT NOA Sur-CONICET, Avda, Belgrano y Pje, Caseros, San Miguel de Tucumán T4001MVB, Tucumán, Argentina
3
Dirección de Sanidad Vegetal, Animal y Alimentos de San Juan, Av. Nazario Benavides 8000 Oeste, Rivadavia CP 5400, San Juan, Argentina
4
Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA-IICA, Camino a los Cacahoatales s/n, Metapa de Dominguez 30860, Chiapas, Mexico
5
Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, 1881 Natural Area Dr., Gainesville, FL 32611-0620, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(10), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11100662
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 20 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Pest and Vector Management)
Biological control has been the most commonly researched control tactic within fruit fly management programs, and parasitoids have been the main natural enemies used against pestiferous fruit fly species. In view of this fact, it is important to highlight and compile the data on parasitoids with a certain frequency, aiming to facilitate the knowledge of all the researchers. Information regarding the activities of parasitoids and predators on pestiferous fruit flies in the Americas is limited; therefore, this study aimed to compile the diversity of parasitoids and predators associated with tephritid fruit flies, as well as providing the scientific evidence about the use of parasitoids and predators as biological control agents for fruit flies im the Americas and Hawaii.
Biological control has been the most commonly researched control tactic within fruit fly management programs. For the first time, a review is carried out covering parasitoids and predators of fruit flies (Tephritidae) from the Americas and Hawaii, presenting the main biological control programs in this region. In this work, 31 species of fruit flies of economic importance are considered in the genera Anastrepha (11), Rhagoletis (14), Bactrocera (4), Ceratitis (1), and Zeugodacus (1). In this study, a total of 79 parasitoid species of fruit flies of economic importance are listed and, from these, 50 are native and 29 are introduced. A total of 56 species of fruit fly predators occur in the Americas and Hawaii. View Full-Text
Keywords: classic biological control; conservation biological control; augmentative biological control; biological control programs classic biological control; conservation biological control; augmentative biological control; biological control programs
MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia, F.R.M.; Ovruski, S.M.; Suárez, L.; Cancino, J.; Liburd, O.E. Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in the Americas and Hawaii: A Review of the Use of Parasitoids and Predators. Insects 2020, 11, 662.

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