Biological Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies in the Americas and Hawaii: A Review of the Use of Parasitoids and Predators
Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia, Zoologia e Genética, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas 96010900, RS, Brazil
LIEMEN, División Control Biológico de Plagas, PROIMI Biotecnología, CCT NOA Sur-CONICET, Avda, Belgrano y Pje, Caseros, San Miguel de Tucumán T4001MVB, Tucumán, Argentina
Dirección de Sanidad Vegetal, Animal y Alimentos de San Juan, Av. Nazario Benavides 8000 Oeste, Rivadavia CP 5400, San Juan, Argentina
Programa Moscafrut SAGARPA-IICA, Camino a los Cacahoatales s/n, Metapa de Dominguez 30860, Chiapas, Mexico
Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, 1881 Natural Area Dr., Gainesville, FL 32611-0620, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 20 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
Biological control has been the most commonly researched control tactic within fruit fly management programs, and parasitoids have been the main natural enemies used against pestiferous fruit fly species. In view of this fact, it is important to highlight and compile the data on parasitoids with a certain frequency, aiming to facilitate the knowledge of all the researchers. Information regarding the activities of parasitoids and predators on pestiferous fruit flies in the Americas is limited; therefore, this study aimed to compile the diversity of parasitoids and predators associated with tephritid fruit flies, as well as providing the scientific evidence about the use of parasitoids and predators as biological control agents for fruit flies im the Americas and Hawaii.