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Evaluation of d-Limonene and β-Ocimene as Attractants of Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a Parasitoid of Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Citrus spp.

1
College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia 6150, Australia
2
College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Mosul 41002, Iraq
3
College of agriculture, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
4
Institute of Equipment Technology, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100123, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed to this work equally.
Insects 2020, 11(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11010044
Received: 22 November 2019 / Revised: 31 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 January 2020 / Published: 8 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiochemicals and Insect Behavior)
The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from herbivore-infested plants can be used as chemical signals by parasitoids during host location. In this research, we investigated the VOC chemical signals for the parasitoid Aphytis melinus to discriminate between Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)-infested fruit and non-infested fruit on three different citrus species. First, we identified the chemical stimuli emanating from non-infested and A. aurantii-infested citrus fruits via solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and identified 34 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences between VOCs emitted from non-infested and infested citrus fruit. Two VOCs, d-limonene and β-ocimene, were significantly increased in all infested fruit, regardless of the fruit species. The response of the female adult A. melinus to olfactory cues associated with A. aurantii infested fruit was evaluated using a Y-tube olfactometer. In two-choice behavioural assays, A. melinus females preferred infested citrus cues over non-infested fruit. Females showed positive chemotaxis toward these VOCs in all tested combinations involving two dosages of synthetic compounds, d-limonene and β-ocimene, except for d-limonene at a dosage of 10 μL/mL. The application of these VOCs may help to enhance the effectiveness of bio-control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: California red scale; citrus fruits; volatile organic compounds; herbivore-induced; parasitoid; SPME-GC-MS California red scale; citrus fruits; volatile organic compounds; herbivore-induced; parasitoid; SPME-GC-MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohammed, K.; Agarwal, M.; Li, B.; Newman, J.; Liu, T.; Ren, Y. Evaluation of d-Limonene and β-Ocimene as Attractants of Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a Parasitoid of Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Citrus spp.. Insects 2020, 11, 44.

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