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Review

Local and Landscape Effects to Biological Controls in Urban Agriculture—A Review

1
Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA
2
Environmental Studies Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(7), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070215
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Small Farms and Gardens Pest Management)
Urban agriculture is widely practiced throughout the world. Urban agriculture practitioners have diverse motivations and circumstances, but one problem is ubiquitous across all regions: insect pests. Many urban farmers and gardeners either choose to, or are required to forego, the use of chemical controls for pest outbreaks because of costs, overspray in populated areas, public health, and environmental concerns. An alternative form of pest control is conservation biological control (CBC)—a form of ecological pest management—that can reduce the severity of pest outbreaks and crop damage. Urban farmers relying on CBC often assume that diversification practices similar to those used in rural farms may reduce insect pest populations and increase populations of beneficial insects, yet these management practices may be inappropriate for applications in fragmented urban environments. In this review, we assess urban CBC research and provide a synthesis for urban agriculture practitioners. Our findings indicate that local and landscape factors differentially affect insect pests and beneficial arthropods across the reviewed studies, and we identify several on-farm practices that can be implemented to increase biological control in urban agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban agriculture; conservation biological control; pest management; habitat management; ecological agriculture; diversification urban agriculture; conservation biological control; pest management; habitat management; ecological agriculture; diversification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arnold, J.E.; Egerer, M.; Daane, K.M. Local and Landscape Effects to Biological Controls in Urban Agriculture—A Review. Insects 2019, 10, 215. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070215

AMA Style

Arnold JE, Egerer M, Daane KM. Local and Landscape Effects to Biological Controls in Urban Agriculture—A Review. Insects. 2019; 10(7):215. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070215

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arnold, Joshua E., Monika Egerer, and Kent M. Daane 2019. "Local and Landscape Effects to Biological Controls in Urban Agriculture—A Review" Insects 10, no. 7: 215. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070215

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