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Open AccessArticle

Life on the Edge: Ecological Genetics of a High Arctic Insect Species and Its Circumpolar Counterpart

1
INRA, IGEPP UMR 1349 INRA/Agrocampus Ouest/Université Rennes 1, Domaine de la Motte 35650 Le Rheu and 65, rue de Saint Brieuc, 35000 Rennes, France
2
INRA, UMR EEF INRA/Université de Nancy, 54282 Champenoux, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(12), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10120427
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 22 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
Arctic ecosystems are subjected to strong environmental constraints that prevent both the colonization and development of many organisms. In Svalbard, few aphid species have established permanent populations. These high arctic aphid species have developed peculiar life-history traits such as shortened life cycles and reduced dispersal capacities. Here, we present data on the distribution and population genetics of Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum in Spitsbergen, the main island of the Svalbard archipelago, and compared its genetic structure with that of its close relative Acyrthosiphon brevicorne, sampled in the top of Scandinavian mainland. We found that A. svalbardicum is common but heterogeneously distributed along the west coast of Spitsbergen. We recorded this species up to 79°12’, which constitutes the northernmost location for any aphid. Genetic structure examined using microsatellite markers showed more pronounced spatial differentiation in A. svalbardicum than in A. brevicorne populations, presumably due to reduced dispersal capacities in the former species. Although populations of A. brevicorne and A. svalbardicum were well-delineated at nuclear loci, they shared similar cytoplasmic DNA haplotypes as revealed by sequence analysis of two DNA barcodes. These results raise questions about whether these two taxa are different species, and the colonization sources and history of the Svalbard archipelago by A. svalbardicum. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum; A. brevicorne; aphids; population genetics; arctic; colonization; adaptation Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum; A. brevicorne; aphids; population genetics; arctic; colonization; adaptation
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Simon, J.-C.; Mahéo, F.; Mieuzet, L.; Buchard, C.; Gauthier, J.-P.; Maurice, D.; Bonhomme, J.; Outreman, Y.; Hullé, M. Life on the Edge: Ecological Genetics of a High Arctic Insect Species and Its Circumpolar Counterpart. Insects 2019, 10, 427.

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  • Supplementary File 1:

    PDF-Document (PDF, 187 KB)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3517808
    Link: https://zenodo.org/record/3517808#.XdwDgxRCfcs
    Description: Pairwise comparisons of FST values between the 38 samples of A. brevicorne (samples 1 to 9) and A. svalbardicum (10 to 38).
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