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Compatibility and Efficacy of the Parasitoid Eretmocerus hayati and the Entomopathogenic Fungus Cordyceps javanica for Biological Control of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci

by Da Ou 1, Li-Mei Ren 2, Yuan -Liu 1,3, Shaukat Ali 1,3,4, Xing-Min Wang 1,3,4, Muhammad Z. Ahmed 5 and Bao-Li Qiu 1,3,4,6,*
1
Key Laboratory of Bio-Pesticide Innovation and Application, Guangdong province, Guangzhou 510640, China
2
School of Resources and Environment Sciences, Baoshan University, Baoshan 678000, China
3
Engineering Research Center of Biological Control, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510640, China
4
Department of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510640, China
5
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, 1911 SW 34th Street, Gainesville, FL 32614-7100, USA
6
Guangdong Laboratory of Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou 510640, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2019, 10(12), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10120425
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 22 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
Biological control is an effective method for whitefly management compared to the potential problems caused by chemical control, including environmental pollution and the development of resistance. Combined use of insect parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi has shown high efficiency in Bemisia tabaci control. Here, we assessed the impacts of an entomopathogenic fungus, Cordyceps javanica, on the parasitism rate of a dominant whitefly parasitoid, Eretmocerus hayati, and for the first time also compared their separate and combined potential in the suppression of B. tabaci under semi-field conditions. Six conidial concentrations of C. javanica (1 × 103, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107 and 1 × 108 conidia/mL) were used to assess its pathogenicity to the pupae and adults of E. hayati. Results showed that the mortality of E. hayati increased with higher concentrations of C. javanica, but these higher concentrations of fungus had low pathogenicity to both the E. hayati pupae (2.00–28.00% mortality) and adults (2.67–34.00% mortality) relative to their pathogenicity to B. tabaci nymphs (33.33–92.68%). Bioassay results indicated that C. javanica was harmless (LC50 = 3.91 × 1010) and slightly harmful (LC50 = 5.56 × 109) to the pupae and adults of E. hayati respectively on the basis of IOBC criteria, and that E. hayati could parasitize all nymphal instars of B. tabaci that were pretreated with C. javanica, with its rate of parasitism being highest on second-instar nymphs (62.03%). Interestingly, the parasitoids from second and third-instar B. tabaci nymphs infected with C. javanica had progeny with increased longevity and developmental periods. Moreover, experimental data from 15 day semi-field studies indicate that combined application of C. javanica and E. hayati suppresses B. tabaci with higher efficiency than individual applications of both agents. Therefore, combined applications of C. javanica (1 × 108 conidia/mL) and E. hayati is a more effective and compatible biological control strategy for management of B. tabaci than using either of them individually. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological control; Cordyceps javanica; Eretmocerus hayati; Bemisia tabaci; compatibility biological control; Cordyceps javanica; Eretmocerus hayati; Bemisia tabaci; compatibility
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Ou, D.; Ren, L.-M.; -Liu, Y.; Ali, S.; Wang, X.-M.; Ahmed, M.Z.; Qiu, B.-L. Compatibility and Efficacy of the Parasitoid Eretmocerus hayati and the Entomopathogenic Fungus Cordyceps javanica for Biological Control of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Insects 2019, 10, 425.

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