Next Article in Journal
Shaping of Planetary Nebulae by Exoplanets
Previous Article in Journal
On the Mass Accretion Rates of Herbig Ae/Be Stars. Magnetospheric Accretion or Boundary Layer?

Water on Mars—A Literature Review

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Construction, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99163, USA
Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Galaxies 2020, 8(2), 40;
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 3 May 2020 / Accepted: 5 May 2020 / Published: 9 May 2020
To assess Mars’ potential for both harboring life and providing useable resources for future human exploration, it is of paramount importance to comprehend the water situation on the planet. Therefore, studies have been conducted to determine any evidence of past or present water existence on Mars. While the presence of abundant water on Mars very early in its history is widely accepted, on its modern form, only a fraction of this water can be found, as either ice or locked into the structure of Mars’ plentiful water-rich materials. Water on the planet is evaluated through various evidence such as rocks and minerals, Martian achondrites, low volume transient briny outflows (e.g., dune flows, reactivated gullies, slope streaks, etc.), diurnal shallow soil moisture (e.g., measurements by Curiosity and Phoenix Lander), geomorphic representation (possibly from lakes and river valleys), and groundwater, along with further evidence obtained by probe and rover discoveries. One of the most significant lines of evidence is for an ancient streambed in Gale Crater, implying ancient amounts of “vigorous” water on Mars. Long ago, hospitable conditions for microbial life existed on the surface of Mars, as it was likely periodically wet. However, its current dry surface makes it almost impossible as an appropriate environment for living organisms; therefore, scientists have recognized the planet’s subsurface environments as the best potential locations for exploring life on Mars. As a result, modern research has aimed towards discovering underground water, leading to the discovery of a large amount of underground ice in 2016 by NASA, and a subglacial lake in 2018 by Italian scientists. Nevertheless, the presence of life in Mars’ history is still an open question. In this unifying context, the current review summarizes results from a wide variety of studies and reports related to the history of water on Mars, as well as any related discussions on the possibility of living organism existence on the planet. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mars; water; solar system Mars; water; solar system
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nazari-Sharabian, M.; Aghababaei, M.; Karakouzian, M.; Karami, M. Water on Mars—A Literature Review. Galaxies 2020, 8, 40.

AMA Style

Nazari-Sharabian M, Aghababaei M, Karakouzian M, Karami M. Water on Mars—A Literature Review. Galaxies. 2020; 8(2):40.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nazari-Sharabian, Mohammad, Mohammad Aghababaei, Moses Karakouzian, and Mehrdad Karami. 2020. "Water on Mars—A Literature Review" Galaxies 8, no. 2: 40.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop