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On the Origin of Morphological Structures of Planetary Nebulae

by 1,2
1
Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
2
Laboratory for Space Research, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Galaxies 2018, 6(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/galaxies6030066
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VII)
We suggest that most of the mass in planetary nebulae (PNe) resides in the equatorial region and the spherical envelope and the optically bright lobes of PNe are in fact low-density cavities cleared out by fast outflows and photoionized by UV photons leaked from the torus. The nature of multi-polar PNe is discussed under this framework. View Full-Text
Keywords: planetary nebulae; asymptotic giant branch stars; mass loss planetary nebulae; asymptotic giant branch stars; mass loss
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kwok, S. On the Origin of Morphological Structures of Planetary Nebulae. Galaxies 2018, 6, 66.

AMA Style

Kwok S. On the Origin of Morphological Structures of Planetary Nebulae. Galaxies. 2018; 6(3):66.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kwok, Sun. 2018. "On the Origin of Morphological Structures of Planetary Nebulae" Galaxies 6, no. 3: 66.

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