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Galaxies 2018, 6(3), 66;

On the Origin of Morphological Structures of Planetary Nebulae

Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
Laboratory for Space Research, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VII)
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We suggest that most of the mass in planetary nebulae (PNe) resides in the equatorial region and the spherical envelope and the optically bright lobes of PNe are in fact low-density cavities cleared out by fast outflows and photoionized by UV photons leaked from the torus. The nature of multi-polar PNe is discussed under this framework. View Full-Text
Keywords: planetary nebulae; asymptotic giant branch stars; mass loss planetary nebulae; asymptotic giant branch stars; mass loss

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Kwok, S. On the Origin of Morphological Structures of Planetary Nebulae. Galaxies 2018, 6, 66.

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