Next Article in Journal
On the Number of Galaxies at High Redshift
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Quantum Corrected Non-Thermal Radiation Spectrum from the Tunnelling Mechanism
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Galaxies 2015, 3(3), 113-128;

The Flyby Anomaly in an Extended Whitehead’s Theory

Instituto Universitario de Matemática Multidisciplinar, Building 8G, 2o Floor, Camino de Vera, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain
Academic Editor: Lorenzo Iorio
Received: 18 June 2015 / Revised: 23 July 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Gravitational Research)
Full-Text   |   PDF [633 KB, uploaded 30 July 2015]   |  


In this paper, we consider an extended version of Whitehead’s theory of gravity in connection with the flyby anomaly. Whitehead’s theory is a linear approximation defined in a background Minkowski spacetime, which gives the same solutions as standard general relativity for the Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics cast in Kerr–Schild coordinates. For a long time and because it gives the same results for the three classical tests—perihelion advance, light bending and gravitational redshift—it was considered a viable alternative to general relativity, but as it is really a linear approximation, it fails in more stringent tests. The model considered in this paper is a formal generalization of Whitehead’s theory, including all possible bilinear forms. In the resulting theory, a circulating vector field of force in the low velocities’ approximation for a rotating planet is deduced, in addition to Newtonian gravity. This extra force gives rise to small variations in the asymptotic velocities of flybys around the Earth to be compared to the recently reported flyby anomaly. View Full-Text
Keywords: experimental tests of gravitational theories; modified theories of gravity; perihelion precession experimental tests of gravitational theories; modified theories of gravity; perihelion precession

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Acedo, L. The Flyby Anomaly in an Extended Whitehead’s Theory. Galaxies 2015, 3, 113-128.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Galaxies EISSN 2075-4434 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top