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Article

Reframing Psychiatry for Precision Medicine

1
Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08854, USA
2
Center for Cognitive Science (RUCCS), Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08854, USA
3
Computer Science, Center for Biomedicine Imaging and Modelling (CBIM), Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08854, USA
J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040144
Received: 19 July 2020 / Revised: 12 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
The art of observing and describing behaviors has driven diagnosis and informed basic science in psychiatry. In recent times, studies of mental illness are focused on understanding the brain’s neurobiology but there is a paucity of information on the potential contributions from peripheral activity to mental health. In precision medicine, this common practice leaves a gap between bodily behaviors and genomics that we here propose to address with a new layer of inquiry that includes gene expression on tissues inclusive of brain, heart, muscle-skeletal and organs for vital bodily functions. We interrogate gene expression on human tissue as a function of disease-associated genes. By removing genes linked to disease from the typical human set, and recomputing gene expression on the tissues, we can compare the outcomes across mental illnesses, well-known neurological conditions, and non-neurological conditions. We find that major neuropsychiatric conditions that are behaviorally defined today (e.g., autism, schizophrenia, and depression) through DSM-observation criteria have strong convergence with well-known neurological conditions (e.g., ataxias and Parkinson’s disease), but less overlap with non-neurological conditions. Surprisingly, tissues majorly involved in the central control, coordination, adaptation and learning of movements, emotion and memory are maximally affected in psychiatric diagnoses along with peripheral heart and muscle-skeletal tissues. Our results underscore the importance of considering both the brain–body connection and the contributions of the peripheral nervous systems to mental health. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism; schizophrenia; mental depression; ataxia; fragile X; Parkinson’s disease; mitochondria; gene expression; tissues; neurological disorders; nervous systems disorders autism; schizophrenia; mental depression; ataxia; fragile X; Parkinson’s disease; mitochondria; gene expression; tissues; neurological disorders; nervous systems disorders
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MDPI and ACS Style

Torres, E.B. Reframing Psychiatry for Precision Medicine. J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10, 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040144

AMA Style

Torres EB. Reframing Psychiatry for Precision Medicine. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2020; 10(4):144. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040144

Chicago/Turabian Style

Torres, Elizabeth B. 2020. "Reframing Psychiatry for Precision Medicine" Journal of Personalized Medicine 10, no. 4: 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10040144

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