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Health Predictors of Pain in Elderly—A Serbian Population-Based Study

Clinical Center of Serbia, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, University Children’s Hospital, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Clinic for Rehabilitation “Dr Miroslav Zotovic”, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Department of Radiology, Clinical Center of Serbia, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, 18000 Nis, Serbia
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Clinical Center Nis, 18000 Nis, Serbia
Institute of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2019, 9(2), 47;
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
PDF [256 KB, uploaded 26 April 2019]


Objectives: The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of health factors with the presence and different degrees of pain in elderly above 65 years of life. Methods: The population-based study included 3540 individuals above 65 years of age of life from twofold stratified household sample representative for Serbia, during 2013 (the average age 73.9 ± 6.3 years; average Body Mass Index was 26.7 ± 4.4, females 56.8%, living with partner 55.5%, with primary education 55.3%, with poor wealth index 55.8% and from rural settings 46.2%). As health predictors of pain, we analyzed further health parameters: self-perceived general health, long-lasting health problems, diagnosed pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and other chronic diseases. Pain domain of SF-36 version 2.0 was used for pain assessment. Results: Significant health predictors of pain were: self-perceived general health (OR 2.28), where bad perception of self-perceived general health in our study had greater risk of pain with higher degree of severity; long-lasting health problems (OR 1.60), where elderly with long-lasting health problems had almost twice the risk of moderate degree of pain, and above twice the risk for severe degree of pain; pulmonary disease (OR 1.38); musculoskeletal disease (OR 2.98) and other chronic diseases (OR 1.71). The presence of musculoskeletal disease increases the risk for pain, even more than double in severe versus mild degrees of pain. Conclusion: Bad self-perceived general health, long-lasting health problems, pulmonary, musculoskeletal diseases, cardiovascular disease and other chronic disease were significant health-related predictors of various degrees of pain in elderly. View Full-Text
Keywords: health; disease; pain; elderly health; disease; pain; elderly
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kostadinovic, M.; Nikolic, D.; Cirovic, D.; Konstantinovic, L.; Mitrovic-Jovanovic, M.; Radosavljevic, N.; Kocic, M.; Bjegovic-Mikanovic, V.; Santric Milicevic, M. Health Predictors of Pain in Elderly—A Serbian Population-Based Study. Diagnostics 2019, 9, 47.

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