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Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer
Department of Urology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Ismaniger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Ismaniger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Ismaniger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2013; in revised form: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 25 June 2013
Abstract: Currently computed tomography (CT) represents the most widely used standard imaging modality in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer. Visualization of local tumor or depth of invasion as well as lymph node staging, however, is often impaired. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted sequences, determination of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values or utilization of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles potentially exhibits advantages in the assessment of local tumor or lymph node involvement and therefore might play a role in routine staging of urinary bladder cancer in the future. Likewise, positron emission tomography (PET) with the currently utilized tracers 18F-FDG, 11C-choline and 11C-acetate is investigated in bladder cancer patients—mostly in combination with diagnostic CT. Although promising results could be obtained for these PET/CT examinations in smaller series, their true value cannot be determined at present.
Keywords: urinary bladder cancer; MRI; PET/CT; FDG; choline; actetate
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MDPI and ACS Style
Maurer, T.; Horn, T.; Heck, M.; Gschwend, J.E.; Eiber, M.; Beer, A.J. Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer. Diagnostics 2013, 3, 315-324.
Maurer T, Horn T, Heck M, Gschwend JE, Eiber M, Beer AJ. Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer. Diagnostics. 2013; 3(3):315-324.
Maurer, Tobias; Horn, Thomas; Heck, Matthias; Gschwend, Jürgen E.; Eiber, Matthias; Beer, Ambros J. 2013. "Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer." Diagnostics 3, no. 3: 315-324.