Diagnostics 2013, 3(3), 315-324; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3030315
Review

Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer

1 Department of Urology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Ismaniger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany 2 Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Ismaniger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany 3 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Ismaniger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2013; in revised form: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 25 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Molecular Diagnostics and Imaging)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [327 KB, uploaded 25 June 2013 12:31 CEST]
Abstract: Currently computed tomography (CT) represents the most widely used standard imaging modality in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer. Visualization of local tumor or depth of invasion as well as lymph node staging, however, is often impaired. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted sequences, determination of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values or utilization of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles potentially exhibits advantages in the assessment of local tumor or lymph node involvement and therefore might play a role in routine staging of urinary bladder cancer in the future. Likewise, positron emission tomography (PET) with the currently utilized tracers 18F-FDG, 11C-choline and 11C-acetate is investigated in bladder cancer patients—mostly in combination with diagnostic CT. Although promising results could be obtained for these PET/CT examinations in smaller series, their true value cannot be determined at present.
Keywords: urinary bladder cancer; MRI; PET/CT; FDG; choline; actetate

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Maurer, T.; Horn, T.; Heck, M.; Gschwend, J.E.; Eiber, M.; Beer, A.J. Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer. Diagnostics 2013, 3, 315-324.

AMA Style

Maurer T, Horn T, Heck M, Gschwend JE, Eiber M, Beer AJ. Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer. Diagnostics. 2013; 3(3):315-324.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maurer, Tobias; Horn, Thomas; Heck, Matthias; Gschwend, Jürgen E.; Eiber, Matthias; Beer, Ambros J. 2013. "Current Staging Procedures in Urinary Bladder Cancer." Diagnostics 3, no. 3: 315-324.

Diagnostics EISSN 2075-4418 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert