Next Article in Journal
Post-Operative Modified All-Inside ACL Reconstruction Technique’s Clinical Outcomes and Isokinetic Strength Assessments
Previous Article in Journal
Application of Ultrasound Scores (Subjective Assessment, Simple Rules Risk Assessment, ADNEX Model, O-RADS) to Adnexal Masses of Difficult Classification
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Recent Advances in Endodontic Diagnosis and Modern Treatment Plans

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, 84081 Salerno, Italy
Diagnostics 2023, 13(17), 2786;
Submission received: 27 August 2023 / Accepted: 28 August 2023 / Published: 29 August 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Endodontic Diagnosis and Modern Treatment Plans)
Generally, to achieve success in endodontics, it is essential to perform all stages of treatment with cautiousness and excellence [1,2].
The first stage, one of the most important, is the diagnosis. At this stage, only with the help of modern technologies is it possible to carefully examine the fundamental problems of the tooth and organise a correct treatment plan [3,4]. For example, by making an accurate diagnosis, to know in advance whether that tooth can be saved or needs to be extracted. This decision is vital because a suitable treatment will be organised, preventing the patient from unnecessarily spending time and money.
Among the fundamental equipment for an effective diagnosis, we have three-dimensional radiology, the 3D CBCT [5].
Moreover, utilising this equipment, we can achieve a series of advantages; for instance, precise analysis of internal and external resorptions, detection of pathologies of the maxillary sinus of odontogenic origin, visualisation of root morphology, observation of small lateral or periapical lesions, precise control of healings, identification of fractures [6,7]. All of the above mentioned is impossible to accomplish using traditional 2D radiology.
Furthermore, modern 3D CBCT equipment can carry out targeted scans of small dimensions, only on the tooth or a few teeth to be analysed. Consequently, the radiation doses decrease, avoiding exposing the patient to excessive doses. In addition to radiology, in the diagnostic phase, it is essential to analyse the vitality of the teeth, any cracks, the periodontal status, etc. [8,9,10].
Only after having performed a correct diagnosis is it practicable to proceed with the subsequent stages of endodontic treatment: isolation of the operating field, access cavity, mechanical shaping, chemical cleaning, obturation, and finally, a suitable restoration [11,12,13,14,15].
Recent approaches and devices are available that allow a general dentist or a recent graduate to have safe and reproducible treatments.
The latest generation of rotating files is highly flexible and simple; it comprises effective cleaning techniques and modern obturation techniques that use the new biosealers [16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25].
In conclusion, each stage should be performed excellently using modern technologies and protocols to achieve success.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.


  1. Urban, K.; Donnermeyer, D.; Schäfer, E.; Bürklein, S. Canal Cleanliness Using Different Irrigation Activation Systems: A SEM Evaluation. Clin. Oral Investig. 2017, 21, 2681–2687. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Tomson, P.L.; Simon, S.R. Contemporary Cleaning and Shaping of the Root Canal System. Prim. Dent. J. 2016, 5, 46–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Setzer, F.C.; Lee, S.M. Radiology in Endodontics. Dent. Clin. N. Am. 2021, 65, 475–486. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Karamifar, K.; Tondari, A.; Saghiri, M.A. Endodontic Periapical Lesion: An Overview on the Etiology, Diagnosis and Current Treatment Modalities. Eur. Endod. J. 2020, 5, 54–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Kruse, C.; Spin-Neto, R.; Reibel, J.; Wenzel, A.; Kirkevang, L.L. Diagnostic validity of periapical radiography and CBCT for assessing periapical lesions that persist after endodontic surgery. Dentomaxillofac. Radiol. 2017, 46, 20170210. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Nasseh, I.; Al-Rawi, W. Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Dent. Clin. N. Am. 2018, 62, 361–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Connert, T.; Weiger, R.; Krastl, G. Present status and future directions—Guided endodontics. Int. Endod. J. 2022, 55, 995–1002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Amato, A.; Iandolo, A.; Scelza, G.; Spirito, F.; Martina, S. COVID-19: The Patients’ Perceived Impact on Dental Care. Eur. J. Dent. 2022, 16, 333–338. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Martina, S.; Amato, A.; Faccioni, P.; Iandolo, A.; Amato, M.; Rongo, R. The perception of COVID-19 among Italian dental patients: An orthodontic point of view. Prog. Orthod. 2021, 7, 11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Duncan, H.F. Present status and future directions-Vital pulp treatment and pulp preservation strategies. Int. Endod. J. 2022, 3, 497–511. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Martina, S.; Pisano, M.; Amato, A.; Abdellatif, D.; Iandolo, A. Modern rotary files in minimally invasive endodontics: A case report. Front. Biosci.-Elite 2021, 13, 299–304. [Google Scholar]
  12. Khalil, I.; Naaman, A.; Camilleri, J. Properties of Tricalcium Silicate Sealers. J. Endod. 2016, 42, 1529–1535. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Kooanantkul, C.; Shelton, R.M.; Camilleri, J. Comparison of obturation quality in natural and replica teeth root-filled using different sealers and techniques. Clin. Oral Investig. 2023, 27, 2407–2417. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Almohaimede, A.; Almanie, D.; Alaathy, S.; Almadi, E. Fracture Resistance of Roots Filled With Bio-Ceramic and Epoxy Resin-Based Sealers: In Vitro Study. Eur. Endod. J. 2020, 28, 134–137. [Google Scholar]
  15. Arbiya, A.S.; Swaroop, H.; Sylvia, M. Minimally invasive endodontics—A review. J. Dent. Orofac. Res. 2019, 15, 77–88. [Google Scholar]
  16. Orlowski, N.B.; Schimdt, T.F.; Teixeira, C.D.S.; Garcia, L.D.F.R.; Savaris, J.M.; Tay, F.R.; Bortoluzzi, E.A. Smear Layer Removal Using Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation and Different Concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite. J. Endod. 2020, 46, 1738–1744. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Jaiswal, S.; Gupta, S.; Nikhil, V.; Bhadoria, A.; Raj, S. Effect of Intracanal and Extracanal Heating on Pulp Dissolution Property of Continuous Chelation Irrigant. J. Conserv. Dent. 2021, 24, 544–548. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  18. Amato, M.; Pantaleo, G.; Abdellatif, D.; Blasi, A.; Lo Giudice, R.; Iandolo, A. Evaluation of cyclic fatigue resistance of modern Nickel–Titanium rotary instruments with continuous rotation. G. Ital. Endod. 2017, 31, 78–82. [Google Scholar]
  19. Tay, F.R.; Gu, L.S.; Schoeffel, G.J.; Wimmer, C.; Susin, L.; Zhang, K.; Arun, S.N.; Kim, J.; Looney, S.W.; Pashley, D.H. Effect of vapor lock on root canal debridement by using a side-vented needle for positive-pressure irrigant delivery. J. Endod. 2010, 36, 745–750. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. İnan, U.; Keskin, C. Torsional Resistance of ProGlider, Hyflex EDM, and One G Glide Path Instruments. J. Endod. 2019, 45, 1253–1257. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Han, Y.; Hou, X.M. Glide path enlargement of curved molar canals using HyFlex EDM glide path file versus PathFile: A comparative study of preparation time and postoperative pain. BMC Oral Health 2021, 23, 150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Haupt, F.; Meinel, M.; Gunawardana, A.; Hülsmann, M. Effectiveness of different activated irrigation techniques on debris and smear layer removal from curved root canals: A SEM evaluation. Aust. Endod. J. 2020, 46, 40–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Utneja, S.; Nawal, R.R.; Talwar, S.; Verma, M. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: Calcium enriched mixture cement—Review of its composition, properties and applications. Restor. Dent. Endod. 2015, 40, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Haji, T.H.; Selivany, B.J.; Suliman, A.A. Sealing ability in vitro study and biocompatibility in vivo animal study of different bioceramic based sealers. Clin. Exp. Dent. Res. 2022, 8, 1582–1590. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi, N.; Rahimifard, N.; Moshari, A.; Vatanpour, M.; Darmiani, S. The Effect of Size and Taper of Apical Preparation in Reducing Intra-Canal Bacteria: A Quantitative SEM Study. Iran. Endod. J. 2014, 9, 61–65. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Iandolo, A. Recent Advances in Endodontic Diagnosis and Modern Treatment Plans. Diagnostics 2023, 13, 2786.

AMA Style

Iandolo A. Recent Advances in Endodontic Diagnosis and Modern Treatment Plans. Diagnostics. 2023; 13(17):2786.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iandolo, Alfredo. 2023. "Recent Advances in Endodontic Diagnosis and Modern Treatment Plans" Diagnostics 13, no. 17: 2786.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop