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Article

Dynamics of Quadriceps Muscles during Isometric Contractions: Velocity-Encoded Phase Contrast MRI Study

1
Life and Health Sciences, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Kato 673-1494, Japan
2
Muscle Imaging and Modeling Laboratory, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
3
Neuromuscular Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland
4
Department of Human Sciences, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ugo Carraro, Usha Sinha, Hans Hoppeler and Shantanu Sinha
Diagnostics 2021, 11(12), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122280
Received: 29 October 2021 / Revised: 30 November 2021 / Accepted: 1 December 2021 / Published: 6 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Research on Muscle and Mobility Medicine)
Objective: To quantify the spatial heterogeneity of displacement during voluntary isometric contraction within and between the different compartments of the quadriceps. Methods: The thigh muscles of seven subjects were imaged on an MRI scanner while performing isometric knee extensions at 40% maximal voluntary contraction. A gated velocity-encoded phase contrast MRI sequence in axial orientations yielded tissue velocity-encoded dynamic images of the four different compartments of the thigh muscles (vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), vastus intermedius (VI), and rectus femoris (RF)) at three longitudinal locations of the proximal–distal length: 17.5% (proximal), 50% (middle), and 77.5% (distal). The displacement, which is the time integration of the measured velocity, was calculated along the three orthogonal axes using a tracking algorithm. Results: The displacement of the muscle tissues was clearly nonuniform within each axial section as well as between the three axial locations. The ensemble average of the magnitude of the total displacement as a synthetic vector of the X, Y, and Z displacements was significantly larger in the VM at the middle location (p < 0.01), and in the VI at the distal location than in the other three muscles. The ensemble average of Z-axis displacement, which was almost aligned with the line of action, was significantly larger in VI than in the other three muscles in all three locations. Displacements of more than 20 mm were observed around the central aponeuroses, such as those between VI and the other surrounding muscles. Conclusions: These results imply that the quadriceps muscles act as one functional unit in normal force generation through the central aponeuroses despite complex behavior in each of the muscles, each of which possesses different physiological characteristics and architectures. View Full-Text
Keywords: aponeurosis; deformation; isometric; quadriceps muscles; thigh; velocity-encoded phase contrast MRI aponeurosis; deformation; isometric; quadriceps muscles; thigh; velocity-encoded phase contrast MRI
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oda, T.; Malis, V.; Finni, T.; Kinugasa, R.; Sinha, S. Dynamics of Quadriceps Muscles during Isometric Contractions: Velocity-Encoded Phase Contrast MRI Study. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 2280. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122280

AMA Style

Oda T, Malis V, Finni T, Kinugasa R, Sinha S. Dynamics of Quadriceps Muscles during Isometric Contractions: Velocity-Encoded Phase Contrast MRI Study. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(12):2280. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122280

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oda, Toshiaki, Vadim Malis, Taija Finni, Ryuta Kinugasa, and Shantanu Sinha. 2021. "Dynamics of Quadriceps Muscles during Isometric Contractions: Velocity-Encoded Phase Contrast MRI Study" Diagnostics 11, no. 12: 2280. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122280

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