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Open AccessReview

Biomarkers for Inner Ear Disorders: Scoping Review on the Role of Biomarkers in Hearing and Balance Disorders

1
Division of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
2
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
3
Faculty of Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada
4
John W. Scott Health Sciences Library, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
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Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, 10117 Berlin, Germany
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Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Zielona Góra, 65-046 Zielona Góra, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010042
Received: 28 November 2020 / Revised: 23 December 2020 / Accepted: 25 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Biomarkers in Medicine)
The diagnostics of inner ear diseases are primarily functional, but there is a growing interest in inner ear biomarkers. The present scoping review aimed to elucidate gaps in the literature regarding the definition, classification system, and an overview of the potential uses of inner ear biomarkers. Relevant biomarkers were categorized, and their possible benefits were evaluated. The databases OVID Medline, EMBASE, EBSCO COINAHL, CA PLUS, WOS BIOSIS, WOS Core Collection, Proquest Dissertations, Theses Global, PROSPERO, Cochrane Library, and BASE were searched using the keywords “biomarker” and “inner ear”. Of the initially identified 1502 studies, 34 met the inclusion criteria. The identified biomarkers were classified into diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and pathognomonic; many were detected only in the inner ear or temporal bone. The inner-ear-specific biomarkers detected in peripheral blood included otolin-1, prestin, and matrilin-1. Various serum antibodies correlated with inner ear diseases (e.g., anti-type II collagen, antinuclear antibodies, antibodies against cytomegalovirus). Further studies are advised to elucidate the clinical significance and diagnostic or prognostic usage of peripheral biomarkers for inner ear disorders, filling in the literature gaps with biomarkers pertinent to the otology clinical practice and integrating functional and molecular biomarkers. These may be the building blocks toward a well-structured guideline for diagnosing and managing some audio-vestibular disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarkers; inner ear; cochlea; audio-vestibular organ; peripheral blood biomarkers; functional biomarkers biomarkers; inner ear; cochlea; audio-vestibular organ; peripheral blood biomarkers; functional biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gomaa, N.A.; Jimoh, Z.; Campbell, S.; Zenke, J.K.; Szczepek, A.J. Biomarkers for Inner Ear Disorders: Scoping Review on the Role of Biomarkers in Hearing and Balance Disorders. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010042

AMA Style

Gomaa NA, Jimoh Z, Campbell S, Zenke JK, Szczepek AJ. Biomarkers for Inner Ear Disorders: Scoping Review on the Role of Biomarkers in Hearing and Balance Disorders. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(1):42. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010042

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gomaa, Nahla A.; Jimoh, Zaharadeen; Campbell, Sandra; Zenke, Julianna K.; Szczepek, Agnieszka J. 2021. "Biomarkers for Inner Ear Disorders: Scoping Review on the Role of Biomarkers in Hearing and Balance Disorders" Diagnostics 11, no. 1: 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010042

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