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Review

Why Chain Length of Hyaluronan in Eye Drops Matters

CORONIS Foundation, 81241 Munich, Germany
Diagnostics 2020, 10(8), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10080511
Received: 21 June 2020 / Revised: 11 July 2020 / Accepted: 20 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dry Eye and Ocular Surface Disorders)
The chain length of hyaluronan (HA) determines its physical as well as its physiological properties. Results of clinical research on HA eye drops are not comparable without this parameter. In this article methods for the assessment of the average molecular weight of HA in eye drops and a terminology for molecular weight ranges are proposed. The classification of HA eye drops according to their zero shear viscosity and viscosity at 1000 s−1 shear rate is presented. Based on the gradient of mucin MUC5AC concentration within the mucoaqueous layer of the tear film a hypothesis on the consequences of this gradient on the rheological properties of the tear film is provided. The mucoadhesive properties of HA and their dependence on chain length are explained. The ability of HA to bind to receptors on the ocular epithelial cells, and in particular the potential consequences of the interaction between HA and the receptor HARE, responsible for HA endocytosis by corneal epithelial cells is discussed. The physiological function of HA in the framework of ocular surface homeostasis and wound healing are outlined, and the influence of the chain length of HA on the clinical performance of HA eye drops is illustrated. The use of very high molecular weight HA (hylan A) eye drops as drug vehicle for the next generation of ophthalmic drugs with minimized side effects is proposed and its advantages elucidated. Consequences of the diagnosis and treatment of ocular surface disease are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyaluronan; hylan A; molecular weight; rheology; viscosity; eye drop; drug vehicle; homeostasis; pathophysiology of OSD; epithelial barrier hyaluronan; hylan A; molecular weight; rheology; viscosity; eye drop; drug vehicle; homeostasis; pathophysiology of OSD; epithelial barrier
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MDPI and ACS Style

Müller-Lierheim, W.G.K. Why Chain Length of Hyaluronan in Eye Drops Matters. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 511. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10080511

AMA Style

Müller-Lierheim WGK. Why Chain Length of Hyaluronan in Eye Drops Matters. Diagnostics. 2020; 10(8):511. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10080511

Chicago/Turabian Style

Müller-Lierheim, Wolfgang G.K. 2020. "Why Chain Length of Hyaluronan in Eye Drops Matters" Diagnostics 10, no. 8: 511. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10080511

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