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Bioremediation of Landfill Leachate with Fungi: Autochthonous vs. Allochthonous Strains

Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, viale Mattioli, 25, 10125 Turin, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungi from Extreme Environments)
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Autochthonous fungi from contaminated wastewater are potential successful agents bioremediation thanks to their adaptation to pollutant toxicity and to competition with other microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant. Biological treatment by means of selected fungal strains could be a potential tool to integrate the leachate depuration process, thanks to their fungal extracellular enzymes with non-selective catalytical activity. In the present work, the treatability of two real samples (a crude landfill leachate and the effluent coming from a traditional wastewater treatment plant) was investigated in decolorization experiments with fungal biomasses. Five autochthonous fungi, Penicillium brevicompactum MUT 793, Pseudallescheria boydii MUT 721, P. boydii MUT 1269, Phanerochaete sanguinea MUT 1284, and Flammulina velutipes MUT 1275, were selected in a previous miniaturized decolorization screening. Their effectiveness in terms of decolorization, enzymatic activity (laccases and peroxidases), biomass growth and ecotoxicity removal was compared with that of five allochthonous fungal strains, Pleurotus ostreatus MUT 2976, Porostereum spadiceum MUT 1585, Trametespubescens MUT 2400, Bjerkanderaadusta MUT 3060 and B. adusta MUT 2295, selected for their well known capability to degrade recalcitrant pollutants. Moreover, the effect of biomass immobilization on polyurethane foam (PUF) cube was assessed. The best decolorization (60%) was achieved by P. spadiceum MUT 1585, P. boydii MUT 721 and MUT 1269. In the first case, the DP was achieved gradually, suggesting a biodegradation process with the involvement of peroxidases. On the contrary, the two autochthonous fungi seem to bioremediate the effluent mainly by biosorption, with the abatement of the toxicity (up to 100%). The biomass immobilization enhanced enzymatic activity, but not the DP. Moreover, it limited the biomass growth for the fast growing fungi, MUT 721 and MUT 1269. In conclusion, robust and versatile strains coming from well-characterized collections of microorganisms can obtain excellent results comparing and even exceeding the bioremediation yields of strains already adapted to pollutants. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodegradation; autochthonous fungi; leachate; detoxification biodegradation; autochthonous fungi; leachate; detoxification

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Spina, F.; Tigini, V.; Romagnolo, A.; Varese, G.C. Bioremediation of Landfill Leachate with Fungi: Autochthonous vs. Allochthonous Strains. Life 2018, 8, 27.

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