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Review

Mechano-Immunomodulation in Space: Mechanisms Involving Microgravity-Induced Changes in T Cells

1
Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
2
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Fathi Karouia
Life 2021, 11(10), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101043
Received: 4 September 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 3 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Space Life Sciences)
Of the most prevalent issues surrounding long-term spaceflight, the sustainability of human life and the maintenance of homeostasis in an extreme environment are of utmost concern. It has been observed that the human immune system is dysregulated in space as a result of gravitational unloading at the cellular level, leading to potential complications in astronaut health. A plethora of studies demonstrate intracellular changes that occur due to microgravity; however, these ultimately fall short of identifying the underlying mechanisms and dysfunctions that cause such changes. This comprehensive review covers the changes in human adaptive immunity due to microgravity. Specifically, there is a focus on uncovering the gravisensitive steps in T cell signaling pathways. Changes in gravitational force may lead to interrupted immune signaling cascades at specific junctions, particularly membrane and surface receptor-proximal molecules. Holistically studying the interplay of signaling with morphological changes in cytoskeleton and other cell components may yield answers to what in the T cell specifically experiences the consequences of microgravity. Fully understanding the nature of this problem is essential in order to develop proper countermeasures before long-term space flight is conducted. View Full-Text
Keywords: microgravity; T cells; altered gravity; cell signaling; immunity; space; immune response; weightlessness; apoptosis; activation microgravity; T cells; altered gravity; cell signaling; immunity; space; immune response; weightlessness; apoptosis; activation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dhar, S.; Kaeley, D.K.; Kanan, M.J.; Yildirim-Ayan, E. Mechano-Immunomodulation in Space: Mechanisms Involving Microgravity-Induced Changes in T Cells. Life 2021, 11, 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101043

AMA Style

Dhar S, Kaeley DK, Kanan MJ, Yildirim-Ayan E. Mechano-Immunomodulation in Space: Mechanisms Involving Microgravity-Induced Changes in T Cells. Life. 2021; 11(10):1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101043

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dhar, Sarit, Dilpreet K. Kaeley, Mohamad J. Kanan, and Eda Yildirim-Ayan. 2021. "Mechano-Immunomodulation in Space: Mechanisms Involving Microgravity-Induced Changes in T Cells" Life 11, no. 10: 1043. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11101043

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