Please select whether you prefer to view the MDPI pages with a view tailored for mobile displays or to view the MDPI
pages in the normal scrollable desktop version. This selection will be stored into your cookies and used automatically
in next visits. You can also change the view style at any point from the main header when using the pages with your
Department of Mathematics, Ege University, İzmir 35100, Turkey
Multidisciplinary Vocational School Technical Programme, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir 35210, Turkey
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Florin Felix Nichita
Received: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
The aim of this paper is to give a new equivalent set of axioms for MV-algebras, and to show that the axioms are independent. In addition to this, we handle Yang–Baxter equation problem. In conclusion, we construct a new set-theoretical solution for the Yang–Baxter equation by using MV-algebras.
MV-algebras; equivalence of set of axioms; independence; Yang–Baxter equation
An axiomatic system is composed of a certain undefined or primitive term (or terms) together with a set of statements which are called axioms. Axioms are presupposed to be true. A theorem is any statement that can be deduced from the axioms by using inference rules. So, when an axiomatic system is given, a natural question arises: are its axioms independent? For instance, independence of the Axiom of Choice from Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory’s axioms took many decades to be confirmed.
An independent axiomatization of any set of formulas from propositional or predicate logic was difficult to settle down. Many logicians have tried to undertake a solution, but they failed. The first partial success for countable sets was obtained by Tarski . Kreisel  worked through research on independent recursive axiomatization.
A set of sentences is if for all , is not a logical consequence of , or equivalently, if there is a model of , where ¬ is the negation operation.
To show that a given finite set of formulas is independent, it is sufficient to find an assignment of truth values that satisfies all the formulas for each , where , and that does not satisfy . On the contrary, to demonstrate that it is not independent, one shows that one of the formulas is a consequence of the other formulas.
Two sets of formulas are said to be if any formula of one set is a consequence of the other set, and conversely.
Oner and Terziler  have exemplified the situation by considering axioms for Boolean algebras; the proof of independence is obtained by using model forming. Additionally, Chajda and Kolaŕík  have proved that the axioms of basic algebras given in Chajda and Emanovský  are not independent.
Here, we consider MV-algebras which were originally introduced by Chang  and further developed by Chang . A simplified axiomatization of MV-algebras in use today can be found in the monograph Algebraic Foundations of Many-valued Reasoning .
 An is an algebra satisfying the following axioms (where A is a nonempty set, ⊕ is a binary operation on A, ¬ is a unary operation on A, and 0 is a constant element of A):
In [9,10], this axiomatic system for algebras was shown not to be independent. Moreover, M. Kolaŕík  proved that if the commutativity axiom is omitted in the above set of axiomatic system, the remaining axioms are independent.
On the other hand, firstly used in theoretical physics  and statistical mechanics [12,13,14], the Yang–Baxter equation has received more and more attention from researchers in a wide range of disciplines in the last years. Intending to apply the Yang–Baxter equation to individual works with different aspects from theoretical to practical in almost all sciences, technology, and industry, researchers have found uncountable and varied applications of this equation in fields such as link invariants, quantum computing, quantum groups, braided categories, knot theory, the analysis of integrable systems, quantum mechanics, etc. ([15,16]). In addition to these, one of the areas which the Yang–Baxter equation was practised is pure mathematics, and there have been many studies in this field, as in other areas. Several researchers have benefited from the axioms of various algebraic structures to solve this equation. Since it is well known that algebras which provide an algebraic proof of the completeness theorem of infinite-valued Logics (or ukasiewicz logics) are important algebraic tools to study in quantum structures, set-theoretical solutions for the Yang–Baxter equation could be examined in algebras.
In this paper, we give some theorems in algebras and obtain an equivalent set of axioms for algebras in Section 2. In Section 3, we prove the independence of this equivalent set of axioms. In the last section, we find some solutions of the set-theoretical Yang–Baxter equation in algebras.
2. An Equivalent Set of Axioms for MV-Algebras
In this section, we introduce a modified set of axioms for algebras. To this end, we add a new axiom and remove axioms and from the above axiomatization of algebras, and we prove that these two sets of axioms are equivalent to each other.
Let be an algebra. Then, there exists a unique element such that for all .
By using and , there exists a such that for all . For the uniqueness of this element, we take . Then, by the hypothesis:
and since implies that , we have
For , the solution set of y contains only 0. In that case, the intersection sets of y solution values which verify this equation also contains 0. Thus, is the unique element of A which holds for all . ☐
Let be an algebra. Then
Necessity: It is clear by and Theorem 1.
Sufficiency: It follows from . ☐
is an algebra if and only if it satisfies the following axioms:
Necessity follows from Theorem 1 and . For sufficiency, we have to show that the axioms and follow from the axioms in Theorem 3. We have by . For , it follows from that . Now, we give a deduction of as follows:
Therefore, the set of axioms is an equivalent set of axioms for -algebras. ☐
3. Proof of the Independence of the Equivalent Set of Axioms
The axioms , , , , and are independent.
To prove this claim, we construct a model for each axiom in which this axiom is false while the others are true. Let be our model with the universe . The symbols , , and are interpreted as a binary operation, a unary operation, and a constant, respectively. Let be an algebra whose operations are defined as in the following tables:
Independence of :
We can define the operations and as in the Table 1:
The algebra is not a model for because, if we choose and , we obtain , which is a contradiction with . Clearly, the algebra satisfies and . To see that and are satisfied by the algebra , it is sufficient to consider the following:
If , then .
If , then is true.
If , then is also true.
As for :
If , then .
If , then . It can be checked from the operations in Table 1 that the equation holds for .
If , then . It can be also controlled from the operations in Table 1 that the equation holds for .
The algebra satisfies , , , , but not , because but . So, . ☐
4. Solutions of the Yang–Baxter Equation in MV-Algebras
Firstly used in theoretical physics by C.N. Yang and in statistical mechanics by R.J. Baxter almost fifty years ago, the Yang–Baxter equation has been studied as the master equation in integrable models in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Recent progress in other fields such as algebras, Hopf algebras, simple Lie algebras, representation theory, conformal field theory, etc. shed light on the significance of the equation, and has drawn attention among many researchers which have used the axioms of these algebraic structures in order to solve this equation.
In this section, we present solutions of the set-theoretical Yang–Baxter equation in algebras. Let k be a field and tensor products be defined over the field k. For V a k-space, we denote by the twist map defined by and by the identity map of the space V; for a linear map, let , , and .
 A Yang–Baxter operator is linear map , which is invertible, and it satisfies the braid condition (called the Yang–Baxter equation):
If R satisfies Equation (1), then both and satisfy the quantum Yang–Baxter equation (QYBE):
 Equations (1) and (2) are equivalent to each other.
To establish a relation between the set-theoretical Yang–Baxter equation and algebras, we need the following definition.
 LetX be a set and , be a map. The map S is a solution for the set-theoretical Yang–Baxter equation if it satisfies the following equation:
which is also equivalent
Now, we give a new method to construct solutions of the set theoretical Yang–Baxter equation by using algebras.
Let be an algebra. Then, is a solution of the set-theoretical Yang–Baxter equation.
Let and be defined as follows:
We verify the equality for all . By using and , we get
Hence is a solution of the set-theoretical Yang–Baxter equation in algebras. ☐
Let be an algebra. Then, is a solution of the set-theoretical Yang–Baxter equation.
We define and as follows:
We show that the equality holds for all . By using , we attain
Thus, is a solution of the set-theoretical Yang–Baxter equation in algebras. ☐
 Let A be an algebra.The binary relation ≤ defined on A as below
is a partial order on A. It is called the natural order of A.
 Let A be an algebra with the natural order. If the join and the meet operators are defined as below:
then the natural order determines a lattice structure on A.
 Any algebra A is a Boolean algebra if and only if the operation ⊕ is idempotent on A.
 Let be a Boolean algebra. Then is a solution of the set-theoretical Yang–Baxter equation.
Let be an algebra. If the identities or are satisfied for all , then
are solutions for the set-theoretical Yang–Baxter equation in algebra A.
Assume that or holds for all . Now substituting or in these identities, respectively, we get or for all . Then, the operation ⊕ is idempotent on A and so by Lemma 4, A is a Boolean algebra. From the definitions of meet and join operators, we obtain . Therefore, is a solution of the Yang–Baxter equation in algebra A from Lemma 5. In addition, since the operation is idempotent, we have . Hence, is also a solution of Yang–Baxter equation in algebra A. ☐