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Article

Relative Growth of Series in Systems of Functions and Laplace—Stieltjes-Type Integrals

Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 79000 Lviv, Ukraine
Axioms 2021, 10(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms10020043
Received: 10 March 2021 / Revised: 24 March 2021 / Accepted: 24 March 2021 / Published: 25 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Analysis)

Abstract

:
For a regularly converging-in- C series A ( z ) = n = 1 a n f ( λ n z ) , where f is an entire transcendental function, the asymptotic behavior of the function M f 1 ( M A ( r ) ) , where M f ( r ) = max { | f ( z ) | : | z | = r } , is investigated. It is proven that, under certain conditions on the functions f, α , and the coefficients a n , the equality lim r + α ( M f 1 ( M A ( r ) ) ) α ( r ) = 1 is correct. A similar result is obtained for the Laplace–Stiltjes-type integral I ( r ) = 0 a ( x ) f ( r x ) d F ( x ) . Unresolved problems are formulated.

1. Introduction

Let
f ( z ) = k = 0 f k z k
be an entire function, M f ( r ) = max { | f ( z ) | : | z | = r } , and Φ f ( r ) = ln M f ( r ) . For an entire function g with Taylor coefficients g n , the study of growth of the function Φ f 1 ( ln M g ( r ) ) in terms of the exponential type was initiated in papers [1,2] and was continued in [3]. As a result, it is proven that, if | f k 1 / f k | + as k , then
lim ¯ r + Φ f 1 ( ln M g ( r ) ) r = lim ¯ k | g n | | f n | 1 / n .
We remark that Φ f 1 ( x ) = M f 1 ( e x ) and, thus, Φ f 1 ( ln M g ( r ) ) = M f 1 ( M g ( r ) ) . The order ρ [ g ] g = lim ¯ r + ln M f 1 ( M g ( r ) ) ln r and the lower-order λ [ g ] f = lim ̲ r + ln M f 1 ( M g ( r ) ) ln r of the function f with respect to the function g are used in Reference [4]. Research on the relative growth of entire functions was continued by many mathematicians (an incomplete bibliography is given in [5]).
Let ( λ n ) be a sequence of positive numbers increasing to + . Suppose that the series
A ( z ) = n = 1 a n f ( λ n z )
in the system f ( λ n z ) is regularly convergent in C , i.e., n = 1 | a n | M f ( r λ n ) < + for all r [ 0 , + ) . Many authors have studied the representation of analytic functions by series in the system f ( λ n z ) and the growth of such functions. Here, we specify only the monographs of A.F. Leont’ev [6] and B.V. Vinnitskyi [3], which are references to other papers on this topic.
Since series (2) is regularly convergent in C and the function A is an entire function, a natural question arises about the asymptotic behavior of the function M f 1 ( M A ( r ) ) .
We suppose that the function F is nonnegative, nondecreasing, unbounded, and continuous on the right on [ 0 , + ) ; that f is positive, increasing, and continuous on [ 0 , + ) ; and that a positive-on- [ 0 , + ) function a is such that the Laplace–Stietjes-type integral
I ( r ) = 0 a ( x ) f ( r x ) d F ( x )
exists for every r [ 0 , + ) . The asymptotic behavior of such integrals in the case f ( x ) = e x is studied in the monograph [7]. A question arises again about the asymptotic behavior of the function f 1 ( I ( r ) ) . Here, we present some results that indicate the possibility of solving these problems.

2. Relative Growth of Series in Systems of Functions

As in [8], by L, we denote a class of continuous nonnegative-on- ( , + ) functions α such that α ( x ) = α ( x 0 ) 0 for x x 0 and α ( x ) + as x 0 x + . We say that α L 0 , if α L and α ( ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) x ) = ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) α ( x ) as x + . Finally, α L s i , if α L and α ( c x ) = ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) α ( x ) as x + for each c ( 0 , + ) , i.e., α is a slowly increasing function. Clearly, L s i L 0 . We need the following lemma [9].
Lemma 1.
If β L and B ( δ ) = lim ¯ x + β ( ( 1 + δ ) x ) β ( x ) , δ > 0 , then in order for β L 0 , it is necessary and sufficient that B ( δ ) 1 as δ + 0 .
We need also some well-known (see, for example, [10]) properties of the function ln M f ( r ) .
Lemma 2.
If a function f is transcendental, then the function ln M f ( r ) is logarithmically convex and, thus,
Γ f ( r ) : = d ln M f ( r ) d ln r + , r + ,
(at the points where the derivative does not exist, where d ln M f ( r ) d ln r means the right-hand derivative).
For α L , β L , and entire functions f and g, we define the generalized ( α , β ) -order ρ α , β [ g ] f and the generalized lower ( α , β ) -order λ α , β [ g ] f of g with respect to f as follows:
ρ α , β [ g ] f = lim ¯ r + α ( M f 1 ( M g ( r ) ) ) β ( r ) , λ α , β [ g ] f = lim ̲ r + α ( M f 1 ( M g ( r ) ) ) β ( r ) .
Suppose that a n 0 for all n 1 . Since
A ( z ) = n = 1 a n k = 0 f k ( z λ n ) k = k = 0 f k n = 1 a n λ n k z k ,
in view of the Cauchy inequality, we have
M A ( r ) | f k | n = 1 a n λ n k r k a n | f k | ( λ n r ) k
for all n 1 , k 0 and r [ 0 , + ) . We also remark that, if μ f ( r ) = max { | f k | r k : k 0 } is the maximal term of series (1), then
M f ( r ) k = 0 | f k | r k = k = 0 | f k | ( 2 r ) k 2 k 2 μ f ( 2 r ) .
We choose n 0 1 such that a n 0 > 0 and λ n 0 2 . Then, from (4) and (5), we get
M A ( r ) max { a n 0 | f k | ( λ n 0 r ) k : k 0 } a n 0 μ f ( 2 r ) a n 0 2 M f ( r ) ,
where M f 1 2 d n 0 M A ( r ) r . By Lemma 2, d ln M f 1 ( x ) d ln x 0 as x + and, thus, for every c > 1
ln M f 1 ( c x ) ln M f 1 ( x ) = x c x d ln M f 1 ( t ) d ln t d ln t d ln M f 1 ( x ) d ln x 0 , x + ,
i.e., the function M f 1 is slowly increasing. Therefore,
M f 1 ( M A ( r ) ) ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) r , r + .
On the other hand, since series (2) is regularly convergent in C , for each r [ 0 , + ) , there exists μ A ( r ) = max { | a n | M f ( r λ n ) : n 1 } and, for every r [ 0 , + ) and τ > 0 , we have
M A ( r ) n = 1 | a n | M f ( r λ n ) μ F ( ( 1 + τ ) r ) n = 1 M f ( r λ n ) M f ( ( 1 + τ ) r λ n ) .
Then, by Lemma 2, for r 1 , we have
ln M f ( ( 1 + τ ) r λ n ) ln M f ( r λ n ) = r λ n ( 1 + τ ) r λ n d ln M f ( x ) d ln x d ln x = r λ n ( 1 + τ ) r λ n Γ f ( x ) d ln x Γ f ( r λ n ) ln ( 1 + τ ) Γ f ( λ n ) ln ( 1 + τ ) .
Therefore, if ln n q Γ f ( λ n ) for all n n 0 and ln ( 1 + τ ) > q , then
n = n 0 M f ( r λ n ) M f ( ( 1 + τ ) r λ n ) n = n 0 exp { Γ f ( λ n ) ln ( 1 + τ ) } n = n 0 exp ln ( 1 + τ ) q ln n < +
and (7) implies, for r 1 ,
M A ( r ) T μ A ( ( 1 + τ ) r ) , T = const > 0 .
Additionally, we have
μ A ( r ) max | a n | k = 0 | f k | ( r λ n ) k : n 1 k = 0 max { | a n | λ n k : n 1 } | f k | r k = k = 0 μ D ( k ) | f k | r k ,
where μ D ( σ ) = max { | a n | exp { σ ln λ n } : n 1 } is the maximal term of Dirichlet series
D ( σ ) = n = 1 | a n | exp { σ ln λ n } .
Using estimates (6), (8), and (9), we prove the following theorem.
Theorem 1.
Let f be an entire transcendental function, a n 0 for all n 1 , and series (2) be regularly convergent in C . Suppose that ln n q Γ f ( λ n ) for some q > 0 and all n n 0 and that lim ¯ σ + ln μ D ( σ ) σ ln M f 1 ( e σ ) = γ .
If γ < 1 , then λ α , α [ F ] f = ρ α , α [ F ] f = 1 for every function α such that α ( e x ) L s i . If γ = 0 , then λ α , α [ F ] f = ρ α , α [ F ] f = 1 for every function α such that α ( e x ) L 0 .
Proof. 
Since α L 0 , from (6), we get
λ α , α [ F ] f = lim ̲ r + α ( M f 1 ( M F ( r ) ) ) α ( r ) lim ̲ r + α ( ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) r ) α ( r ) = 1 .
On the other hand, in view of the Cauchy inequality, we have ln | f k | ln M f ( r ) k ln r for all r and k. We choose r = r k = M f 1 ( e k ) . Then, ln | f k | k k ln M f 1 ( e k ) , i.e., ln | f k | k ( ln M f 1 ( e k ) 1 ) . Therefore,
lim ¯ k ln μ D ( k ) ln f k lim ¯ k ln μ D ( k ) k ( ln M f 1 ( e k ) 1 ) lim ¯ σ + ln μ D ( σ ) σ ln M f 1 ( e σ ) = σ .
If γ < 1 , then in view of (10), ln μ D ( k ) ln | f k | p for each p ( γ , 1 ) and all k k 0 and, thus, μ D ( k ) | f k | p for all k k 0 . Therefore, in view of (9) and (5),
μ A ( r ) k = 0 k 0 1 + k = k 0 μ D ( k ) | f k | r k O ( r k 0 1 ) + k = k 0 | f k | 1 p r k O ( r k 0 1 ) + 2 max { f k 1 p ( 2 r ) k : k 0 } = = O ( r k 0 1 ) + 2 max { ( | f k | ( 2 r ) k / ( 1 p ) ) 1 p : k 0 } = = O ( r k 0 1 ) + 2 ( μ f ( ( 2 r ) 1 / ( 1 p ) ) ) 1 p μ f ( ( 2 r ) 1 / ( 1 p ) ) , r r 0 ,
because ln r = o ( ln μ f ( r ) ) as r + for every entire transcendental function f and 1 p < 1 . Therefore, from (8) and (11), we get
M A ( r ) T μ A ( ( 1 + τ ) r ) T μ f ( ( 2 ( 1 + τ ) r ) 1 / ( 1 p ) ) T M f ( ( 2 ( 1 + τ ) r ) 1 / ( 1 p ) )
and, thus, M f 1 ( M A ( r ) ) ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) ( 2 ( 1 + τ ) r ) 1 / ( 1 p ) as r + . If α L s i , then we obtain
lim ¯ r + α ( M f 1 ( M A ( r ) ) ) α ( r 1 / ( 1 p ) ) 1 .
Suppose that α ( e x ) L s i . Then,
α ( r 1 / ( 1 p ) ) = α ( exp 1 1 p ln r ) = ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) α ( exp { ln r } ) = ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) α ( r )
as r + . Therefore, (12) implies the inequality ρ α , α [ A ] f 1 , where in view of the inequality λ α , α [ A ] f 1 , we get λ α , α [ A ] f = ρ α , α [ A ] f = 1 .
If γ = 0 , then (12) holds for every p ( 0 , 1 ) and all r r 0 ( p ) . If we put 1 1 p = 1 + δ , then δ + 0 as p + 0 , and in view of the condition α ( e x ) L 0 , by Lemma 1, we have
lim ¯ r + α ( r 1 / ( 1 p ) ) α ( r ) = lim ¯ r + α ( exp { ( 1 + δ ) ln r } ) α ( exp { ln r } ) = B ( δ ) 1 , δ 1 .
Therefore,
1 lim ¯ r + α ( M f 1 ( M A ( r ) ) ) α ( r 1 / ( 1 p ) ) = lim ¯ r + α ( M f 1 ( M A ( r ) ) ) α ( r ) · α ( r ) α ( r 1 + δ ) lim ¯ r + α ( M f 1 ( M A ( r ) ) ) α ( r ) lim ̲ r + α ( r ) α ( r 1 + δ ) = ρ α , α [ F ] f B ( δ ) .
In view of the arbitrariness of δ , we get ρ α , α [ A ] f 1 , and again, λ α , α [ A ] f = ρ α , α [ A ] f = 1 . Theorem 1 is proven. □
We remark that, if f k 0 for all k 0 , then M f ( r ) = f ( r ) . Therefore, from Theorem 1, we obtain the following statement.
Corollary 1.
Let f be an entire transcendental function, f k 0 for all k 0 , a n 0 for all n 1 , and series (2) be regularly convergent in C . Suppose that f ( r ) / f ( r ) h > 0 for all r r 0 , ln n = O ( λ n ) as n and lim ¯ σ + ln μ D ( σ ) σ ln f 1 ( e σ ) = γ .
If γ < 1 , then λ α , α [ A ] f = ρ α , α [ A ] f = 1 for every function α such that α ( e x ) L s i .
If γ = 0 , then λ α , α [ A ] f = ρ α , α [ A ] f = 1 for every function α such that α ( e x ) L 0 .

3. Relative Growth of Laplace–Stieltjes-Type Integrals

Suppose again that f is an entire transcendental function, f k 0 for all k 0 , and x 0 > 1 is such that 1 x 0 a ( x ) d F ( x ) > 0 . Then,
I ( r ) 1 x 0 a ( x ) f ( r x ) d F ( x ) f ( r ) c ,
i.e., as above, f 1 ( I ( r ) ) ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) r as r + , where for α L 0 ,
λ α , α [ I ] f = lim ̲ r + α ( f 1 ( I ( r ) ) ) α ( r ) 1 .
On the other hand, if τ e 1 , then as above, for r 1 , we have
ln f ( ( 1 + τ ) r x ) ln f ( r x ) = r x ( 1 + τ ) r x d ln f ( x ) d ln x d ln x = r x ( 1 + τ ) r x Γ f ( x ) d ln x Γ f ( x ) ln ( 1 + x ) ,
i.e., f ( r x ) f ( ( 1 + τ ) r x ) e Γ f ( x ) ln ( 1 + τ ) . Therefore, if μ I ( r ) = max { a ( x ) f ( r x ) : x 0 } is the maximum of the integrand and ln F ( x ) q Γ f ( x ) for some q > 0 and all x x 0 , then for ln ( 1 + τ ) > q (for simplicity assuming x 0 = 0 ), we get
I ( r ) = 0 a ( x ) f ( ( 1 + τ ) r x ) f ( r x ) f ( ( 1 + τ ) r x ) d F ( x ) μ I ( ( 1 + τ ) r ) 0 f ( r x ) f ( ( 1 + τ ) r x ) d F ( x ) μ I ( ( 1 + τ ) r ) 0 e Γ f ( x ) ln ( 1 + τ ) d F ( x ) μ I ( ( 1 + τ ) r ) ln ( 1 + τ ) 0 e Γ f ( x ) ln ( 1 + τ ) + ln F ( x ) d Γ f ( x ) μ I ( ( 1 + τ ) r ) ln ( 1 + τ ) 0 e Γ f ( x ) ( ln ( 1 + τ ) q ) d Γ f ( x ) = μ I ( ( 1 + τ ) r ) ln ( 1 + τ ) ln ( 1 + τ ) q = = T μ I ( ( 1 + τ ) r ) .
Additionally, as above, we have
μ I ( r ) = max a ( x ) k = 0 f k ( x r ) k : x 0 k = 0 max { a ( x ) x k : x 0 } f k r k = k = 0 μ J ( k ) f k r k ,
where μ J ( σ ) = max { a ( x ) e σ ln x : x 0 } = max { a ( x ) x ln x : x 0 } is the maximum of the integrand for the Laplace integral
J ( σ ) = 0 a ( x ) e σ ln x d F ( x ) .
Using estimates (13) and (14), and λ α , α [ I ] f 1 , we prove the following analog of Theorem 1.
Theorem 2.
Let ln F ( x ) q Γ f ( x ) for some q > 0 and all x x 0 , and lim ¯ σ + ln μ J ( σ ) γ ln f 1 ( e σ ) = γ .
If γ < 1 , then λ α , α [ I ] f = ρ α , α [ I ] f = 1 for every function α such that α ( e x ) L s i .
If γ = 0 , then λ α , α [ I ] f = ρ α , α [ I ] f = 1 for every function α such that α ( e x ) L 0 .
Proof. 
As in the proof of Theorem 1, we obtain ln | f k | k ( ln f 1 ( e k ) 1 ) and lim ¯ k ln μ J ( k ) ln f k γ . Therefore, if γ < 1 , then μ D ( k ) | f k | p for each p ( γ , 1 ) and all k k 0 , and in view of (14) and (5), as in the proof of Theorem 1, we get μ I ( r ) μ f ( ( 2 r ) 1 / ( 1 p ) ) for r r 0 . Therefore, in view of (13), we get
I ( r ) T μ I ( ( 1 + τ ) r ) T f ( ( 2 ( 1 + τ ) r ) 1 / ( 1 p ) ) ,
where f 1 ( I ( r ) ) ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) ( 2 ( 1 + τ ) r ) 1 / ( 1 p ) as r + . If α L s i , then we obtain
lim ̲ r + α ( f 1 ( I ( r ) ) ) α ( r 1 / ( 1 p ) ) 1 .
Further proof of Theorem 2 is the same as that of Theorem 1. □
Theorem 2 implies the following statement.
Corollary 2.
Let f ( x ) / f ( x ) h , h > 0 , ln F ( x ) q x for some q > 0 and all x 0 , and lim ¯ r + ln μ J ( σ ) σ f 1 ( e σ ) = γ .
If γ < 1 , then λ α , α [ I ] f = ρ α , α [ I ] f = 1 for every function α such that α ( e x ) L s i .
If γ = 0 , then λ α , α [ I ] f = ρ α , α [ I ] f = 1 for every function α such that α ( e x ) L 0 .

4. Examples

Here, we consider the case when f ( z ) = E ρ ( z ) , where
E ρ ( z ) = k = 0 z k Γ ( 1 + k ρ ) , 0 < ρ < + ,
is the Mittag–Leffler function. The properties of this function have been used in many problems in the theory of entire functions. We only need the following property of the Mittag–Leffler function: if 0 < ρ < + , then ([11] p. 85)
M E ρ ( r ) = E ρ ( r ) = ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) ρ e r ρ , r +
and, if 1 / 2 < ρ < + , then [12]
E ρ ( r ) / E ρ ( r ) = ρ r ρ 1 + O ( r ρ 2 e r ρ ) , r + .
From (15), it follows that E ρ 1 ( x ) = ( 1 + o ( 1 ) ) ln 1 / ρ x as x + . Therefore, for f ( x ) = E ρ ( x ) , we have σ ln f 1 ( e σ ) = 1 + o ( 1 ) ρ σ ln σ as σ + . Since in (16), Γ E ρ ( r ) = ρ r ρ + o ( 1 ) as r + , then if ln F ( x ) q ρ x ρ for some q > 0 and all x x 0 , and
lim ¯ σ + ln μ J ( σ ) σ ln σ = 0 ,
then for α ( x ) = ln x ( x e ) , by Theorem 2, we get
lim r + ln E ρ 1 ( I ρ ( r ) ) ln r = 1 , I ρ ( r ) = 0 a ( x ) E ρ ( r x ) d F ( x ) .
Let us now find out under what conditions (17) holds on a ( x ) . For this, as in ([7] p. 29), by Ω , we denote a class of positive unbounded functions Φ on ( , + ) such that the derivative Φ 0 is positive, continuously differentiable, and increasing to + on ( , + ) . For Φ Ω , let φ be the inverse function to Φ and Ψ ( σ ) = σ Φ ( σ ) Φ ( σ ) be the function associated with Φ in the sense of Newton.
By Theorem 2.2.1 from ([7] p. 30), ln max { a ( x ) e σ x : x 0 } Φ ( σ ) Ω for all σ σ 0 if and only if ln a ( x ) x Ψ ( φ ( x ) ) for all x x 0 . Choosing Φ ( σ ) = ϵ σ ln σ for σ σ 0 , we obtain Φ ( σ ) = ϵ ( ln σ + 1 ) , φ ( x ) = exp { x / ϵ 1 } and x Ψ ( φ ( x ) ) = x φ ( x ) Φ ( φ ( x ) ) = ϵ exp { x / ϵ 1 } for x x 0 . Therefore, ln μ J ( σ ) ε σ ln σ for all σ σ 0 if and only if ln a ( x ) ε exp { ln x / ε 1 } for x x 0 . Hence, it follows that, if ln x = o ( ln ln ( 1 / a ( x ) ) ) as x + , then (17) holds. Thus, the following statement is true.
Proposition 1.
If ρ > 1 / 2 , ln F ( x ) = O ( x ρ ) and ln x = o ( ln ln ( 1 / a ( x ) ) ) as x + , then (18) holds.
Remark 1.
If ρ = 1 , then E ρ ( r ) = E 1 ( r ) = e r , and we have a usual Laplace–Stieltjes integral I 1 ( r ) = 0 a ( x ) e r x d F ( x ) . Therefore, if ln F ( x ) = O ( x ) and ln x = o ( ln ln ( 1 / a ( x ) ) ) as x + , then p R [ I 1 ] : = lim r + ln ln I 1 ( r ) ln r = 1 . On the other hand, the quantity p R [ I 1 ] is called the logarithmic R-order of I 1 , and in ([7] p. 83), it is proven that, if ln F ( x ) = O ( x ) as x + , then p R [ I 1 ] = lim ¯ x + ln x ln ( 1 x ln 1 a ( x ) ) = 1 , i.e., if ln F ( x ) = O ( x ) and ln x = o ( ln ln ( 1 / a ( x ) ) ) as x + , then p R [ I 1 ] = 1 .
Similarly, we can prove the following statement.
Proposition 2.
Let ρ 1 / 2 , ln n = O ( λ n ρ ) as n , a n 0 for all n 1 and series A ρ ( z ) = n = 1 a n E ρ ( λ n z ) be regularly convergent in C . If ln n = o ( ln ln ( 1 / a n ) ) as n , then lim r + ln E ρ 1 ( M A ρ ( r ) ) ln r = 1 .
Remark 2.
If ρ = 1 , then we have a Dirichlet series A 1 ( z ) = n = 1 a n e λ n z . Therefore, if this Dirichlet series is absolutely convergent in C , a n 0 for all n 1 , ln n = O ( λ n ) , and ln n = o ( ln ln ( 1 / a n ) ) as n , then p R [ A 1 ] : = lim r + ln ln M A 1 ( r ) ln r = 1 . On the other hand, the quantity p R [ A 1 ] is called the logarithmic R-order of A 1 and p R [ A 1 ] = lim ¯ n + ln λ n ln ( 1 λ n ln 1 a n ) = 1 provided ln n = O ( λ n ) as n [13], i.e., if ln n = O ( λ n ) and ln λ n = o ( ln ln ( 1 / a n ) ) as n , then p R [ A 1 ] = 1 .

5. Discussion Open Problems

1. The natural problem studied was the relative growth when the domain of regular convergence of series (2) is the disk D R = { z : | z | < R < + } and the function f is either entire or analytic in D R .
2. It is well known that the study of the growth of entire functions of many complex variables involves many options. The following problem is the simplest.
Let f be an entire function and the series A ( z , w ) = m = 1 , n = 1 a m , n f ( λ m z + μ n w ) be regularly convergent in C 2 . A question arises about the asymptotic behavior of the function M f 1 ( M A ( r , ρ ) ) , where M A ( r , ρ ) = max { | A ( z , w ) | : | z | r , | w | ρ } .
3. The condition ρ 1 / 2 in Propositions 1 and 2 arose in connection to the application of Equation (16). Probably, it is superfluous in the above statements.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

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Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

This research did not report any data.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

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