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Open AccessArticle

Multivariate Analysis for Assessing Sources, and Potential Risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lisbon Urban Soils

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Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) & Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
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Geobiotec Research Centre & Department of Geosciences, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
4
Centro de Ciências da Terra, Departamento de Ciências da Terra, Escola de Ciências, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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GreenUPorto-Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Centre, Campus de Vairão, Rua da Agrária 747, 4485-646 Vila do Conde, Portugal
6
Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9030139
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Geology)
Urban soils quality may be severely affected by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination, as is the case of Lisbon (Portugal). However, to conduct a risk assessment analysis in an urban area can be a very difficult task due to the patchy nature and heterogeneity of these soils. Thus, the present study aims to provide an example on how to perform the first tier of a risk assessment plan in the case of urban soils using a simpler, cost effective, and reliable framework. Thus, a study was conducted in Lisbon to assess the levels of PAH, their potential risks to the environment and human health, and to identify their major sources. Source apportionment was performed by studying PAHs profiles, their relationship with potentially toxic elements, and general characteristics of soil using multivariate statistical methods. Results showed that geostatistical tools are useful for evaluating the spatial distribution and major inputs of PAHs in urban soils, as well as to identify areas of potential concern, showing their usefulness in risk assessment analysis and urban planning. Particularly, the prediction maps obtained allowed for a clear identification of areas with the highest levels of PAHs (close to the airport and in the city center). The high concentrations found in soils from the city center should be a result of long-term accumulation due to diffuse pollution mostly from traffic (through atmospheric emissions, tire debris and fuel exhaust, as well as pavement debris). Indeed, most of the sites sampled in the city center were historical gardens and parks. The calculation of potential risks based on different models showed that there is a high discrepancy among guidelines, and that risks will be extremely associated with the endpoint or parameters used in the different models. Nevertheless, this initial approach based on total levels was useful for identifying areas where a more detailed risk assessment is needed (close to the airport and in the city center). Therefore, the use of prediction maps can be very useful for urban planning, for example, by crossing information obtained with land uses, it is possible to define the most problematic areas (e.g., playgrounds and schools). View Full-Text
Keywords: geostatistical analysis; multivariate statistics; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; risk assessment; source apportioning; urban soils geostatistical analysis; multivariate statistics; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; risk assessment; source apportioning; urban soils
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cachada, A.; Dias, A.C.; Reis, A.P.; Ferreira da Silva, E.; Pereira, R.; Duarte, A.d.C.; Patinha, C. Multivariate Analysis for Assessing Sources, and Potential Risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lisbon Urban Soils. Minerals 2019, 9, 139.

AMA Style

Cachada A, Dias AC, Reis AP, Ferreira da Silva E, Pereira R, Duarte AdC, Patinha C. Multivariate Analysis for Assessing Sources, and Potential Risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lisbon Urban Soils. Minerals. 2019; 9(3):139.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cachada, Anabela; Dias, Ana C.; Reis, Amélia P.; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Pereira, Ruth; Duarte, Armando d.C.; Patinha, Carla. 2019. "Multivariate Analysis for Assessing Sources, and Potential Risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lisbon Urban Soils" Minerals 9, no. 3: 139.

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