Next Article in Journal
Rhenium Nanochemistry for Catalyst Preparation
Next Article in Special Issue
Geological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Aspects for Critical and Rare Metals in Greece
Previous Article in Journal
Characterizing Frothers through Critical Coalescence Concentration (CCC)95-Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB) Relationship
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Minerals 2012, 2(3), 228-243;

Textural Evidence of Episodic Introduction of Metallic Nanoparticles into Bonanza Epithermal Ores

Department of Geology and Geography, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
Received: 28 June 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Economic Minerals)
Full-Text   |   PDF [993 KB, uploaded 14 August 2012]   |  


Tertiary low sulfidation (LS) epithermal deposits in the western USA often show evidence of the former presence of nanoparticle-sized precious-metal and silica phases in the highest grade (bonanza) ores. Here, nanoparticles are defined to have a size less than ~107 m. The ore-mineral textures that formed from aggregation of nanoparticles (or colloids) observed to date in these ores include electrum and naumannite (Ag2Se). Here it is proposed that chalcopyrite also forms nanoparticles in these ores, but sulfide nanoparticles apparently have significantly different physical (surface) properties than the precious-metal phases, and thus exhibit different mineral textures (e.g., no textural evidence of previous chalcopyrite nanoparticles). Textures described here show that nanoparticles of precious-metal phases and silica were episodically and often repeatedly deposited to form the banded bonanza veins typical of many western USA epithermal deposits. Chalcopyrite is the most abundant metal-sulfide mineral in these bonanza ores, and it was also deposited episodically as well, and it appears to replace earlier formed naumannite dendrites. However, this apparent “replacement” texture may just be the result of naumannite dendrite limbs trapping chalcopyrite nanoparticles that later recrystallized to the apparent replacement texture. The episodic and repetitive nature of the metal-depositing events may record periodic “degassing” of magma chambers at depth, where metals are repeatedly delivered to the shallow epithermal environment by “vapor-phase” metal (loid) transport. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; epithermal ores; chalcopyrite; ore textures; electrum; dendrites nanoparticles; epithermal ores; chalcopyrite; ore textures; electrum; dendrites

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Saunders, J.A. Textural Evidence of Episodic Introduction of Metallic Nanoparticles into Bonanza Epithermal Ores. Minerals 2012, 2, 228-243.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top