# Determining the Paleostress Regime during the Mineralization Period in the Dayingezhuang Orogenic Gold Deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China: Insights from 3D Numerical Modeling

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

_{1}NE–SW, σ

_{2}vertical, σ

_{3}NW–SE), the NE dilation zones associated with fault deformation served as channels for the ore-forming fluid migration. Based on the numerical modeling results, the deeper NE levels of the No. 2 orebody in the Dayingezhuang deposit have good prospecting potential. Thus, our study not only highlights that gold mineralization at Dayingezhuang is essentially controlled by the detachment fault geometry associated with certain stress directions but also demonstrates that numerical modeling is a robust tool for identifying potential mineralization.

## 1. Introduction

`→`NE–SW extension

`→`E–W compression

`→`NE–SW extension [14,15], and multi-transformation from NW–SE compression to shear compression, shear tension, and extension [16,17]. While it has been well documented that the orebodies are tectonically controlled, which stress background has influenced the mineralization and how fluids migrated from the source to trap are still poorly understood.

## 2. Geological Background

_{2}–H

_{2}O, aqueous fluid, and CO

_{2}–H

_{2}O±CH

_{4}) in Au-bearing quartz veins at Dayingezhuang are between 360 and 280 °C [42,43].

## 3. Method

#### 3.1. Numerical Simulation Methods

#### 3.2. The Model Setup

#### 3.3. Experiment Settings and Modeling Parameters

- (1)
- The base of the model was fixed vertically but moved freely horizontally. The top deformed freely in both the vertical and horizontal directions during the tectonic deformation. Most geological strain rates ranged from 10
^{−11}to 10^{−17}s^{−1}[69]; thus, the strain rate range from 1 × 10^{−13}s^{−1}to 3 × 10^{−13}s^{−1}was assigned at the boundaries in our model [15]. To avoid geometric errors caused by the distortion of the meshes, all models in our study were compressed to a maximum strain of 1%. - (2)
- The initial temperature distribution in the model was determined purely by heat conduction, with the temperature at the top parts of the model kept at 20 °C, while the temperature at the bottom of the model was assigned and fixed according to the geothermal gradient of 30 °C/km [65,70]. The side boundaries were treated as insulated from heat transport.
- (3)

## 4. Results

#### 4.1. Model 1: Compression in NW–SE Direction

^{−10}m/s was applied to the left and right boundaries of the model to induce a bulk strain rate. The results show the volumetric strain distribution, shear strain distribution, and fluid flow patterns at the 0.5% and 1% bulk shortening stage (Figure 7). The model was in a compression state, and the deformation was distributed on the interface between the hanging wall and the fault, ranging from 1000 to −1000 m. The inhomogeneity of the rock properties resulted in inhomogeneous bulk strain, and the maximum expansion volume strain of the fault zone was 8.0 × 10

^{−3}. The fluids migrated upward to the fault because of the increase in the pore pressure in the footwall granite during deformation. The fault zone acted as the conduit for fluid migration and transported fluids from depths into the Jiaodong Group units. When the volume strain was 0.5%, the fluid migration was mainly upward, and when the volume strain was 1%, the fluid migrated into the dilated sites. The average fluid velocity of the surrounding rock was about 2.4 × 10

^{−5}m/yr, and the maximum fluid velocity of the fault zone was 6.5 × 10

^{−5}m/yr.

#### 4.2. Model 2: Extension in NW–SE Direction

^{−10}m/s was applied to the left and right boundaries of the model to induce bulk strain rates.

^{−5}m/yr. After 1.0% tension strain (Figure 8b,d), the fault zone was the site of intensive shear strain accumulation, and the shear strain in the wedge area was further enhanced. The difference in shear stress caused by topography began to affect the hydrothermal system and there was a differential dilation deformation on the fault footwall below −1500 m. The maximum positive volumetric strain inside the fault zone was 2.4 × 10

^{−2}, and the fluid flow rate was about 6.2 × 10

^{−5}. It is interesting to note that tectonic stresses gave rise to local expansive deformation to drive downward flow in the model (Figure 8b).

#### 4.3. Model 3: Compression in NW–SE Direction with Dextral Strike-Slip

^{−11}s

^{−1}), and the strike-slip shear stress was applied to the hanging wall and footwall, respectively. At the initial stage, the fluid flow of the whole model was similar to that of Models 1 and 2 (Figure 7a and Figure 8a), and the maximum fluid velocity of the fault zone was 2.4 × 10

^{−5}m/yr. The fault zone still maintained the most significant volumetric strain localization, with a maximum of 3.6 × 10

^{−2}.

^{−5}m/yr.

#### 4.4. Model 4: Extension in NW–SE Direction with Dextral Strike-Slip

^{−2}and 2.8 × 10

^{−5}m/yr, respectively.

^{−5}m/yr, and the velocity decreased to 2.7 × 10

^{−5}m/yr in locations with gentle dip.

## 5. Discussion

#### 5.1. Paleostress Regimes in the Dayingezhuang District

#### 5.2. Metallogenic and Exploration Implications

## 6. Conclusions

_{1}NE–SW, σ

_{2}vertical, σ

_{3}NW–SE) with strike-slip deformation during the ore-forming stage. The expansion deformation at specific parts of the fault can effectively locate the mineralization sites and indicate the directions and locations of fluid migration. The direction of fault movement controls the scale and scope of fluid migration. Inhomogeneous extensional tectonic stress leads to discontinuous expansion space, and the NE dilation zone serves as a channel for the migration of gold-bearing fluids. Ore-forming fluids tend to flow to sites of dilation deformation during migration. There is the potential for fluid pooling at a NE depth of the No. 2 orebody, and we suggest this as a future prospecting area. The computational method used in this research is limited with respect to chemical reactions, large-scale deformation, and the phase change method. We suggest that future simulation experiments might improve the numerical simulation results by incorporating these components as well as large-scale deformation simulation experiments for the northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula, which may provide new constraints for the paleostress and help us better clarify the stress background.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Geological map of the Jiaodong gold province showing the distribution of major fault zones, formations, intrusions, and gold deposits (modified from [36]).

**Figure 2.**A simplified geological map of the Dayingezhuang gold deposit [37].

**Figure 3.**Geological section of the Dayingezhuang gold deposit. The cross-sections illustrate that orebodies mainly occur near the fault interface in the footwall.

**Figure 5.**(

**a**) 3D models of the fault and drill holes; (

**b**) 3D models of fault and orebody; (

**c**) gold grade distribution; (

**d**) numerical simulation model.

**Figure 6.**The setting of boundary conditions in the experiment and the kinematic states of models showing (

**a**) compression in the NW–SE direction; (

**b**) extension in the NW–SE direction; (

**c**) extension in the NW–SE direction with dextral strike-slip; (

**d**) extension in the NW–SE direction with dextral strike-slip. The paleostress directions for several models are also shown.

**Figure 7.**The volumetric strain, shear strain distribution, and detailed fluid flow vectors at a strain rate of 10

^{−11}s

^{−1}. In the figure, the rectangular box is the scope of the cross-sections; thick arrows indicate areas of intense strain or mineralization; the vector arrows represent the Darcy flux and are used to indicate the direction of flow. (

**a**) 0.5% volumetric strain, (

**b**) 1.0% volumetric strain, (

**c**) 0.5% shear strain, (

**d**) 1.0% shear strain, and (

**e**) corresponding geological section.

**Figure 8.**The volumetric strain, shear strain distribution, and detailed fluid flow vectors at a strain rate of 10

^{−11}s

^{−1}. In the figure, the rectangular box is the scope of the cross-sections; thick arrows indicate areas of intense strain or mineralization; the vector arrows represent the Darcy flux and are used to indicate the direction of flow. (

**a**) 0.5% volumetric strain, (

**b**) 1.0% volumetric strain, (

**c**) 0.5% shear strain, (

**d**) 1.0% shear strain, and (

**e**) corresponding geological section.

**Figure 9.**The volumetric strain, shear strain distribution, and detailed fluid flow vectors at a strain rate of 10

^{−an}s

^{−s}. In the figure, the rectangular box is the scope of the cross-sections; thick arrows indicate areas of intense strain or mineralization; the vector arrows represent the Darcy flux and are used to indicate the direction of flow. (

**a**) 0.5% volumetric strain, (

**b**) 1.0% volumetric strain, (

**c**) 0.5% shear strain, (

**d**) 1.0% shear strain, and (

**e**) corresponding geological section.

**Figure 10.**The volumetric strain, shear strain distribution, and detailed fluid flow vectors at a strain rate of 10

^{−11}s

^{−1}. In the figure, the rectangular box is the scope of the cross-sections; thick arrows indicate areas of intense strain or mineralization; the vector arrows represent the Darcy flux and are used to indicate the direction of flow. (

**a**) 0.5% volumetric strain, (

**b**) 1.0% volumetric strain, (

**c**) 0.5% shear strain, (

**d**) 1.0% shear strain, and (

**e**) corresponding geological section.

**Figure 11.**Cross-section of volume strain corresponding to exploration line with 1% bulk shortening. The rectangular box is the scope of the cross-sections. (

**a**) Nos. 70~94 geological cross-sections; (

**b**) cross-section of 1% bulk shortening in Model 4.

**Figure 12.**Spatial distribution of dilation deformation on horizontal planes. (

**a**) after 0.5% and (

**b**) 1% of bulk shortening.

Symbol | Meaning |
---|---|

${\mathrm{q}}^{\mathrm{W}}$ | fluid-specific discharge |

$\mathrm{k}$ | coefficient of fluid mobility |

P | pressure of the pore fluid |

${\mathsf{\rho}}_{\mathrm{w}}$ | fluid density |

$\mathrm{g}$ | gravitational acceleration |

${\mathrm{q}}^{\mathrm{T}}$ | heat flux |

${\mathrm{k}}^{\mathrm{T}}$ | effective thermal conductivity |

T | temperature |

ζ | variation of fluid content |

${\mathrm{q}}_{\mathrm{v}}^{\mathrm{W}}$ | volumetric fluid source |

${\mathrm{q}}_{\mathrm{i}}$ | vector of fluid-specific discharge in the ${\mathrm{x}}_{\mathrm{i}}$ direction |

${\mathrm{C}}^{\mathrm{T}}$ | effective specific heat |

${\mathrm{q}}^{\mathrm{T}}$ | heat flux |

${\mathsf{\rho}}_{0}$ | reference density of the fluid |

${\mathrm{c}}_{\mathrm{w}}$ | specific heat of the fluid |

${\mathrm{q}}_{\mathrm{v}}^{\mathrm{T}}$ | thermal fluid source |

$\mathsf{\rho}$ | bulk density of the porous medium |

${\mathsf{\sigma}}_{\mathrm{ij}}$ | stress tensor of the solid |

${\mathrm{v}}_{\mathrm{i}}$ | velocity component in the x_{i} direction |

${\mathrm{g}}_{\mathrm{i}}$ | component of gravitational acceleration in the ${\mathrm{x}}_{\mathrm{i}}$ direction |

${\mathsf{\epsilon}}_{\mathrm{ij}}$ | thermal strain tensor |

${\mathsf{\alpha}}_{\mathrm{t}}$ | coefficient of linear thermal expansion |

${\mathsf{\delta}}_{\mathrm{ij}}$ | Kronecker delta |

$\mathsf{\zeta}$ | variation in fluid content |

M | Biot modulus |

$\mathsf{\alpha}$ | Biot coefficient |

$\mathsf{\epsilon}$ | volumetric strain |

$\mathsf{\beta}$ | volumetric thermal expansion of the porous matrix |

Density of Rock Unit and Lithology | Denudation Layer | Jiaodong Group | Fault | Linglong Granite |
---|---|---|---|---|

Density (kg m^{−3}) | 2.10 | 3.80 | 2.50 | 2.67 |

Bulk modulus (10^{10} Pa) | 5.70 | 2.94 | 8.60 | 4.16 |

Shear modulus (10^{10} Pa) | 4.10 | 2.20 | 7.20 | 3.38 |

Cohesive strength (10^{6} Pa) | 2.6 | 3.8 | 4.0 | 4.2 |

Tensile strength (10^{6} Pa) | 1.3 | 1.8 | 2.2 | 2.3 |

Friction angle | 16 | 30 | 15 | 32 |

Dilatancy angle | 4 | 3 | 4 | 3 |

Permeability (10^{−12} m^{2}) | 1.6 | 1.6 | 3.0 | 1.5 |

Porosity | 0.30 | 0.30 | 0.40 | 0.25 |

Thermal conductivity(W·m^{−1}·K^{−1}) | 2.3 | 2.3 | 4.0 | 2.4 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Xie, S.; Mao, X.; Liu, Z.; Deng, H.; Chen, J.; Xiao, K.
Determining the Paleostress Regime during the Mineralization Period in the Dayingezhuang Orogenic Gold Deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China: Insights from 3D Numerical Modeling. *Minerals* **2022**, *12*, 505.
https://doi.org/10.3390/min12050505

**AMA Style**

Xie S, Mao X, Liu Z, Deng H, Chen J, Xiao K.
Determining the Paleostress Regime during the Mineralization Period in the Dayingezhuang Orogenic Gold Deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China: Insights from 3D Numerical Modeling. *Minerals*. 2022; 12(5):505.
https://doi.org/10.3390/min12050505

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Xie, Shaofeng, Xiancheng Mao, Zhankun Liu, Hao Deng, Jin Chen, and Keyan Xiao.
2022. "Determining the Paleostress Regime during the Mineralization Period in the Dayingezhuang Orogenic Gold Deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China: Insights from 3D Numerical Modeling" *Minerals* 12, no. 5: 505.
https://doi.org/10.3390/min12050505