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Article

Self-Healing Biogeopolymers Using Biochar-Immobilized Spores of Pure- and Co-Cultures of Bacteria

1
Chemical Engineering Department, Gokongwei College of Engineering, De La Salle University, Manila 1004, Philippines
2
Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, De La Salle University, Manila 1004, Philippines
3
Biology Department, College of Science, De La Salle University, Manila 1004, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(12), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121114
Received: 7 November 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Bacterial Mineralization)
A sustainable solution for crack maintenance in geopolymers is necessary if they are to be the future of modern green construction. This study aims to develop self-healing biogeopolymers that could potentially rival bioconcrete. First, a suitable healing agent was selected from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, and Bacillus megaterium by directly adding their spores in the geopolymers and subsequently exposing them to a precipitation medium for 14 days. Scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis revealed the formation of mineral phases for B. subtilis and B. sphaericus. Next, the effect of biochar-immobilization and co-culturing (B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis) on the healing efficiencies of the geopolymers were tested and optimized by measuring their ultrasonic pulse velocities weekly over a 28-day healing period. The results show that using co-cultured bacteria significantly improved the observed efficiencies, while biochar-immobilization had a weak effect, but yielded an optimum response between 0.3–0.4 g/mL. The maximum crack width sealed was 0.65 mm. Through SEM-EDX and FTIR analyses, the precipitates in the cracks were identified to be mainly CaCO3. With that, there is potential in developing self-healing biogeopolymers using biochar-immobilized spores of bacterial cultures. View Full-Text
Keywords: geopolymer; biogeopolymer; self-healing; crack repair; microbially induced calcite precipitation; ureolytic bacteria; non-ureolytic bacteria; co-cultured bacteria geopolymer; biogeopolymer; self-healing; crack repair; microbially induced calcite precipitation; ureolytic bacteria; non-ureolytic bacteria; co-cultured bacteria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Doctolero, J.Z.S.; Beltran, A.B.; Uba, M.O.; Tigue, A.A.S.; Promentilla, M.A.B. Self-Healing Biogeopolymers Using Biochar-Immobilized Spores of Pure- and Co-Cultures of Bacteria. Minerals 2020, 10, 1114. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121114

AMA Style

Doctolero JZS, Beltran AB, Uba MO, Tigue AAS, Promentilla MAB. Self-Healing Biogeopolymers Using Biochar-Immobilized Spores of Pure- and Co-Cultures of Bacteria. Minerals. 2020; 10(12):1114. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121114

Chicago/Turabian Style

Doctolero, Jadin Z.S., Arnel B. Beltran, Marigold O. Uba, April A.S. Tigue, and Michael A.B. Promentilla 2020. "Self-Healing Biogeopolymers Using Biochar-Immobilized Spores of Pure- and Co-Cultures of Bacteria" Minerals 10, no. 12: 1114. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121114

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