T-cell Engaging bispecific antibodies (TcEs) that can re-direct cytotoxic T-cells to kill cancer cells have been validated in clinical studies. To date, the clinical success with these agents has mainly been seen in hematologic tumor indications. However, an increasing number of TcEs are currently being developed to exploit the potent mode-of-action to treat solid tumor indications, which is more challenging in terms of tumor-cell accessibility and the complexity of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Of particular interest is the potential of TcEs as an immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of non-immunogenic (often referred to as cold) tumors that do not respond to checkpoint inhibitors such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies. This has led to considerable discovery efforts for, firstly, the identification of tumor selective targeting approaches that can safely re-direct cytotoxic T-cells to cancer cells, and, secondly, bispecific antibodies and their derivatives with drug-like properties that promote a potent cytolytic synapse between T-cells and tumor cells, and in the most advanced TcEs, have IgG-like pharmacokinetics for dosing convenience. Based on encouraging pre-clinical data, a growing number of TcEs against a broad range of targets, and using an array of different molecular structures have entered clinical studies for solid tumor indications, and the first clinical data is beginning to emerge. This review outlines the different approaches that have been taken to date in addressing the challenges of exploiting the TcE mode-of-action for a broad range of solid indications, as well as opportunities for future discovery potential.
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