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Review

Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Their Origin and Development

Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Mainz, D-55101 Mainz, Germany
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Academic Editor: Ricard Cervera
Antibodies 2016, 5(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib5020015
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 18 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 2 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome)
Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are a hallmark of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is the most commonly acquired thrombophilia. To date there is consensus that aPL cause the clinical manifestations of this potentially devastating disorder. However, there is good evidence that not all aPL are pathogenic. For instance, aPL associated with syphilis show no association with the manifestations of APS. While there has been intensive research on the pathogenetic role of aPL, comparably little is known about the origin and development of aPL. This review will summarize the current knowledge and understanding of the origin and development of aPL derived from animal and human studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: antiphospholipid antibodies; natural antibodies; innate immunity; B1 B cells antiphospholipid antibodies; natural antibodies; innate immunity; B1 B cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lackner, K.J.; Müller-Calleja, N. Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Their Origin and Development. Antibodies 2016, 5, 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/antib5020015

AMA Style

Lackner KJ, Müller-Calleja N. Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Their Origin and Development. Antibodies. 2016; 5(2):15. https://doi.org/10.3390/antib5020015

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lackner, Karl J., and Nadine Müller-Calleja. 2016. "Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Their Origin and Development" Antibodies 5, no. 2: 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/antib5020015

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