- freely available
Land 2019, 8(12), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/land8120187
2. The Sugar Industry in Malawi
3. Analysis of the Land-Grabbing Case in Dwangwa Based on Existing Studies
3.1. Dwangwa Outgrower Scheme (DOS)
3.2. “Land-Grabbers” within the Framework of the Dwangwa Outgrower Scheme (DOS) and Kazilira Dambo Farmers
4. Methodology and Field Work
4.1. The “Journey” from Matiki to Kalimkhola Village
4.2. Environment and Identity Change
4.3. Loss of Traditional Culture: Chinamwali
Conflicts of Interest
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This case will be more specifically dealt with in Section 3.2.
TAs are considered custodians of the cultural and traditional values of the community. They control customary land and perform a (semi)judicial function by dealing with customary disputes over land. Further, as they act as chairpersons for Area Development Committees, the TAs play a large role in mobilizing their people to participate in any developmental activities .
It must be noted that, based on the Land Act 2016, land is categorized as either public land (government land and unallocated customary land) or private land (customary estate, leasehold, or freehold) . However, as the Kazilira dambo case happened prior to the commencement of the Land Act 2016, the land categorization here is based on Land Act 1965 cap 57:01 .
All the land-grabbing incidences in Dwangwa took place on customary land. Although customary land is considered the property of the people of Malawi, it is vested in perpetuity to the president according to the Land Act 1965 cap 57:01 . This means the Malawi citizens’ tenants own their land. The structure and position of customary land is a part of the British colonial legacy, making it a part of public land or crown land, which was to provide easier access for the settler community via private titles .
This hierarchy is known to start from the TA at the top and sub-TA, group village head (GVH), and village head (VH), accordingly .
GVH is a leader or chief of a number of villages that are guided by village heads (VH).
During the interview, it was discovered that the Kalimkhola community consisted of people who moved from Matiki, where the Dwangwa Illovo Sugar Plantation is located (see <Map 1>), to Kazilira dambo in the 1970s. This means that the community has members who have experienced displacement twice. The male and female groups included two men and four women who experienced displacement twice. In this paper, these six people will be referred to as the “six elders”.
This is contrary to the experience of the Mafupa, Chipembere, and Chazuka communities who settled in Kaongozi, as they argued that they were forced to move to Kaongozi .
Here, a clarification is made. Most existing studies focused on the Kazilira dambo case portray the displaced community as Kazilira dambo farmers. This is a misunderstanding, as it appears that the displaced communities are one large community. However, different communities (such as the Kalimkhola community) lived “near” Kazilira dambo and “worked in” Kazilira dambo to cultivate crops. In other words, people who work in Kazilira dambo are from different communities and remain in custody of their own piece of land within Kazilira dambo, which is within their community. Accordingly, their second displacement was within Kalimkhola, from the place near Kazilira dambo to the current location, which is further away from Kazilira dambo. However, in order to prevent any confusion, the second displacement will be referred to as Kazilira dambo to Kalimkhola village in this paper.
In fact, 45 interviewees (including the GVH) in this research consisted of the members who live very far away from the village. However, when the GVH contacted them for the interview, they all came to participate as part of the Kalimkhola community.
|1||Question: Could you tell me the history of your move?|
|Purpose: To understand and see the full displacement process from community’s point of view.|
To check what types of crucial information are missing in existing studies connected to land-grabbing in Dwangwa.
|2||What would you consider to be the main factor(s) that contributed most to your move?|
|Purpose: To analyze land-grabbers from the community’s point of view.|
|3||What is the main change you experienced during the move?|
|Purpose: To analyze the consequence of displacement other than economic loss.|
|4||Has there been any cultural change or loss during your move?|
|Purpose: To specify question 3 and analyze whether land-grabbing can be connected to areas of study other than political science.|
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