Green Space Visits and Barriers to Visiting during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Three-Wave Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study of UK Adults
- To describe variation in green space visiting during the COVID-19 pandemic.
- To describe reported barriers to green space visits during the COVID-19 pandemic.
- To explore variation in green space visits and barriers over time and by sex, age, and socio-economic position.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Survey Sample
2.2. Survey Content
2.3. Statistical Analyses
3.1. Descriptive Statistics
3.2. Variation in Green Space Visits and Barriers to Visits by Wave
3.3. Variation in Green Space Visits and Barriers to Visits by Sex
3.4. Variation in Green Space Visitation and Barriers by Age
3.5. Variation in Green Space Visitation and Barriers by Social Grade
3.6. Change over Time in Associations
Strengths and Limitations
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Themes||Wave 1 Questions||Waves 2 and 3 Questions||Response Categories|
|Visitation frequency||Have you visited a green space since the movement restrictions have been enforced in the UK? (i.e., since 23 March 2020).||Have you visited ANY green spaces in the last 4 weeks||‘Yes, I have’|
‘No, I have not’
|Barriers to visits||[If the respondent had not visited green space since lockdown was implemented]|
Which, if any, of the following are reasons for you not visiting green spaces since the restrictions were introduced (i.e., 23 March 2020)? (Please select all that apply)
|[If the respondent had not visited green space or had visited infrequently in the last 4 weeks]|
You previously said you have not regularly visited a green space in the last 4 weeks… Which, if any, of the following are your reasons for this? (Please select all that apply)
|Those Who Visited Green Space in the Previous 4 Weeks||Those Who Either Did Not Visit Green Space in the Previous 4 Weeks|
or Did So Infrequently ^
|% (n)||% (n)||Worried about Social Distancing in Green Spaces||Green Spaces Are Too Busy||Fear for Health When Outdoors (i.e., Contracting COVID-19)||Member of Household/Individual at Risk of Being Severely Affected by COVID-19||Using an Outdoor Space at Home Instead||Not Interested in Visiting Green Spaces|
|1 April 20||%||49%|
|2 Nov 20||%||65%|
|3 April 21||%||68%|
|Age group *|
|Social grade *|
|Higher social grade||%||66%|
|Lower social grade||%||53%|
|Visited Green Space in Previous 4 Weeks||Barriers Reported by Those Who Either Did Not Visit Green Spaces in the Previous 4 Weeks or Did So Infrequently|
|Worried about Social Distancing in Green Spaces||Green Spaces Are Too Busy||Fear for Health When Outdoors||Member of Household/Individual at Risk of Being Severely Affected by COVID-19||Using an Outdoor Space at Home Instead||Not Interested in Visiting Green Spaces|
|1 (ref) (April 20)||1.00||1.00||1.00||1.00||1.00||1.00||1.00|
|2 (November 20)||1.28 (1.15–1.44) ***||0.51 (0.41–0.64) ***||1.06 (0.79–1.44)||0.43 (0.34–0.53) ***||0.49 (0.40–0.62) ***||0.39 (0.33–0.47) ***||1.20 (0.88–1.64)|
|3 (April 21)||2.25 (1.99–2.55) ***||0.50 (0.40–0.62) ***||2.40 (1.84–3.13) ***||0.31 (0.25–0.40) ***||0.25 (0.19–0.32) ***||0.49 (0.40–0.59) ***||1.37 (1.01–1.85) *|
|Female||1.03 (0.93–1.14)||1.26 (1.05–1.52) *||1.31 (1.04–1.63) *||1.18 (0.97–1.43)||1.13 (0.93–1.38)||1.56 (1.34–1.83) ***||0.53 (0.41–0.68) ***|
|18–24||0.90 (0.76–1.06)||1.06 (0.79–1.42)||1.11 (0.78–1.56)||0.95 (0.69–1.31)||0.90 (0.63–1.28)||0.63 (0.48–0.83) ***||1.76 (1.24–2.51) **|
|65+||0.82 (0.73–0.93) **||0.94 (0.76–1.18)||0.77 (0.58–1.02)||1.48 (1.20–1.84) ***||2.25 (1.83–2.78) ***||2.70 (2.27–3.22) ***||1.12 (0.83–1.51)|
|Higher social grade (ref)||1.00||1.00||1.00||1.00||1.00||1.00||1.00|
|Lower social grade||0.57 (0.52–0.63) ***||0.72 (0.60–0.87) ***||0.91 (0.73–1.14)||0.92 (0.76–1.12)||1.14 (0.94–1.38)||0.83 (0.71–0.97) *||1.22 (0.95–1.56)|
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Burnett, H.; Olsen, J.R.; Mitchell, R. Green Space Visits and Barriers to Visiting during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Three-Wave Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study of UK Adults. Land 2022, 11, 503. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040503
Burnett H, Olsen JR, Mitchell R. Green Space Visits and Barriers to Visiting during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Three-Wave Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study of UK Adults. Land. 2022; 11(4):503. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040503Chicago/Turabian Style
Burnett, Hannah, Jonathan R. Olsen, and Richard Mitchell. 2022. "Green Space Visits and Barriers to Visiting during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Three-Wave Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study of UK Adults" Land 11, no. 4: 503. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040503