- To assess the suitability of the Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration (FFPLA) approach for identification, verification and recordation (IVR) of informal land rights in the Nepalese context; and
- To validate the acceptability of locally initiated mapping results at the national level.
2. Addressing Social Discrimination and Inequality in Access to Land
3. Rationale of the Research
4. Materials and Methods
4.1. Study Area
4.2.1. Spatial Framework
- Questionnaire Formation
- Capacity Development
- Satellite Imagery Preparation
- Field Data Collection
- Data Digitization and Storage
- Public Hearing and Dispute Resolution
4.2.2. Legal Framework
- The Constitution of Nepal
- National Land Policy
- Land Act and Land Regulation Amendments
4.2.3. Institutional Framework
- Discussions among Local Stakeholders
- Formation of Technical Support Unit
- Formation of Local Facilitation Committee
5.1. Spatial Framework
5.1.1. A Pilot Study in Dense Urban Setting (Ratnanagar Municipality)
5.1.2. A Pilot Study in Rural Setting (Belaka Municipality Ward No. 3)
5.2. Legal Framework
5.3. Institutional Framework
6. Discussion and Recommendations
6.1. Spatial Framework
6.2. Legal Framework
6.3. Institutional Framework
6.4. Potential Policy Implications
6.5. Time Estimation for Nationwide Scale-Up
6.6. Future Challenges
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Image Date (Belaka/Ratnanagar)||24 November 2017–9 January 2018|
|Orientation on STDM tools and field-based training (Belaka/Ratnanagar)||January–March 2019|
|Survey Start (Belaka/Ratnanagar)||January–March 2019|
|Survey End (Belaka/Ratnanagar)||July–September 2019|
|Consultation and Drafting Land Act Amendment||September 2018–May 2019|
|Land Act Bill passed by the Parliament||August 2019|
|Land Act approved by the President||February 2020|
|Consultation and Drafting Land Regulation Amendment||March–May 2019|
|Land Regulation approved by the Cabinet||December 2020|
|Land Regulation Act Published in Gazette||December 2020|
|Consultation meeting, to finalize the survey questionnaires (Belaka/Ratnanagar)||January 2019/January 2019|
|Provincial dialogue on land issues and possible solution||February–April 2019|
|Formation Order of Land Issues Resolving Commission (LIRC)||April 2020|
|Form and Basic Information|
|1. Questionnaire number|
2. Date of household Survey
3. Ward No.
4. GPS-ID number
5. Camera ID number
6. Household (HH) number
7. Caste (Dalit/Indigenous/Brahmin-Chhetri/Others)
8. Household head
9. Citizenship number of HH head
10. Father/Husband Name
11. Grandfather/Father-in-law Name
12. Respondent Name and Relation to HH Head (If different than house head)
Family details for each adult member of the family
3. Date of birth
4. Marital status
5. Education status
7. National ID type and number
8. Physical and Health Condition
9. Relation to HH head
10. For how long you have been cultivated or residing on this land (in years)?
11. How did you receive this land (i. Inheritance ii. From relatives iii. Purchased iv. Started cultivation by Self v. Allocated by someone vi. Others-mention source)?
12. The purpose of your migration to this location (i. Opportunity for better livelihood ii. Better education for kids iii. Displaced due to natural disaster iv. Displaced due to war v. Ruined by development of physical infrastructure vi. Opportunity for land access vii. Rehabilitation viii. Others-specify)?
13. What is your family monthly income and expenses (in Nepalese rupees)?
|1. Do your family have own house? What’s your house structure (Permanent/Temporary/Other-specify)?|
2. What is the type of land where the house is positioned (i. Private ii. Public iii. Guthi iv. Government v. Forest vi. Other-specify)?
3. Citizenship certificate/National ID and photo number (of spouse)
4. Location code of land
5. Approximate area
6. GPS File number (of land boundaries/point coordinate)
7. Photo number (House)
8. Evidence document on land occupancy (i. Temporary land ownership certificate ii. Revenue bill against occupied land iii. House migration document iv. Recommendation document v. No evidence vi. Other-specify)
9. Four corners of the land (E/W/N/S)
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|Spatial units under informality||10,000,000|||
|Number of Spatial Units Mapped per month (Urban Scenario)||217||as per the results of the two pilot studies.|
|Number of Spatial Units Mapped per month (Rural Scenario)||482|
|Average Number of Spatial Units that can be mapped per month||402||with an estimated Urban-Rural spatial units under informality of 30:70|
|Estimated Mapping Time in Years (Scenario 1)||3.5||Simultaneous Implementation at 150 municipalities with an average of 4 wards in parallel|
|Estimated Mapping Time in Years (Scenario 2)||5.2||Simultaneous Implementation at 100 municipalities with an average of 4 wards in parallel|
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