Hydrologic Controls and Water Vulnerabilities in the Naryn River Basin, Kyrgyzstan: A Socio-Hydro Case Study of Water Stressors in Central Asia
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Quantifying the Hydrologic Setting
2.2. Synoptic Sample Design
2.3. Water Sample Collection and Analysis
2.4. Mixing Models and Source Water Separations
2.5. Socio-Hydro Surveys
3.1. Hydrologic Setting
3.2. Hydro Chemistry Elevation Gradient
3.3. EMMA Diagnostics and Mixing Model Results
3.3.1. Upper Naryn
3.3.2. Lower Naryn
3.3.3. Mixing Model Validation
3.4. Socio-Hydro Results
- Gaps in knowledge. Farmers accustomed to single task jobs associated with large scale farming practices lacked knowledge about crop rotation, irrigation techniques suitable for the climate and soils of the Naryn basin, and the complete cycle of agricultural production needed for productive small-plot farming.
- A lack of agricultural, economic, educational and hydrologic infrastructure needed to service small-plot farmers. Farmers were ill-equipped without financing options, reliable irrigation and water distribution, and appropriate machinery. As a result, yields declined and irrigation systems deteriorated leading to greater inefficiencies.
- Complete absence of new irrigation technologies.
- Inadequate government support for struggling farmers due to understaffed water management offices in the region. A shortage of qualified specialists was largely attributed to low compensation.
4.1. Use of EMMA over Regional Scales
4.2. Hydrologic Controls on River Flow
4.3. Social Implications
Conflicts of Interest
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|Reach||Tracers Used||End Members||Sample Used to Characterize End Member||End Member Selection Rationale|
|UPSTREAM: From glacier snout to Naryn town||Ca2+, Na+, K+, SO42−, δ18O||Mine discharge||Mine discharge tributary||Clear explanatory power regarding chemical progression of upstream samples|
|Seasonal snow||Bordu snow||Well positioned to constrain samples in EMMA diagram, acceptable Euclidean distances but important for concentration reconstructions|
|Glacial outflow||Petrov Lake||Well positioned to constrain samples in EMMA diagram, Low Euclidean distances|
|Reacted upstream groundwater||Tash Prabat groundwater well||Well positioned to constrain samples in EMMA diagram, Low Euclidean distances|
|DOWNSTREAM: From Naryn town to Toktogul Reservoir||Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl−, SO42−, δ18O||Upper Naryn River||Naryn River above Naryn town||Well positioned to constrain samples in EMMA diagram, Low Euclidean distances, an obvious source water to downstream flow|
|Reacted downstream groundwater||At Kiya well||Low Euclidean distances, EMMA diagram location encapsulates samples despite not being a “tight” fit.|
|Unreacted (lateral flow) groundwater||Kalmak spring||Well positioned to constrain samples in EMMA diagram, Low Euclidean distances|
|Downstream Naryn basin model||0.92||0.43||0.95||0.95||0.68||0.95||0.9||0.78||0.77|
|Upstream Naryn basin model||0.84||0.84||0.96||0.83||0.94||0.79||0.9||0.92||0.85|
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Hill, A.F.; Minbaeva, C.K.; Wilson, A.M.; Satylkanov, R. Hydrologic Controls and Water Vulnerabilities in the Naryn River Basin, Kyrgyzstan: A Socio-Hydro Case Study of Water Stressors in Central Asia. Water 2017, 9, 325. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9050325
Hill AF, Minbaeva CK, Wilson AM, Satylkanov R. Hydrologic Controls and Water Vulnerabilities in the Naryn River Basin, Kyrgyzstan: A Socio-Hydro Case Study of Water Stressors in Central Asia. Water. 2017; 9(5):325. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9050325Chicago/Turabian Style
Hill, Alice F., Cholpon K. Minbaeva, Alana M. Wilson, and Rysbek Satylkanov. 2017. "Hydrologic Controls and Water Vulnerabilities in the Naryn River Basin, Kyrgyzstan: A Socio-Hydro Case Study of Water Stressors in Central Asia" Water 9, no. 5: 325. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9050325